Training andDevelopmentTheories and ApplicationsDipak Kumar BhattacharyyaXavier Institute ofManagement, Bhubaneswari SAGE I TEXTSwww.sagepublications.comlw AngtlH London New MM Slngapora Washington DC Boston

Detailed ContentsPREFACExixABOUTTHEAUTHORChapter 1:Human Resource Management and Training and Developmentxxiii1IntroductionProcess of Development of HRM FunctionProcess of Development of HRM in IndiaHRD ConceptsTrainingEducationDevelopmentObjectivesof HRDFocusofthe HRD SystemRole and Significance of HRDHRD Culture, Climate and MatrixHRD CultureHRD ClimateHRD MatrixStructure of HRD SystemManagement of HRD Unit in IndiaRole of HRD ManagerRole of HRD ConsultantsTheories of Employee DevelopmentHuman Resource Flanning and Training and Development FunctionJob Analysis and Its Relation with the Training and Development FunctionPerformance Management Systems and Training and DevelopmentManagerial Skills and CompetenciesSkill InventoriesMulti-skillingSkills for the New MillenniumDeveloping Competencies for Effective Development of Human 22232424252627Chapter 2: Training and Development and Human Resource Development31IntroductionDefinition and Purposes ofTrainingNeed for Manpower TrainingClassification ofTraining ProgrammesInduction and OrientationSupervisory Training ProgrammeTraining for Top and Middle Management32323234343535ix

Training and DevelopmentSteps for Designing a Training ProgrammeSequenceofa Training ProgrammeTraining PolicyTraining ObjectivesTraining MethodsTechniques of TrainingComputer-based TrainingOnline or E-IearningUse of Blended Training ApproachBenefits ofTraining for EmployeesMarketing the Training FunctionRote PlayingTraining for Managing ChangeTraining ClimateTraining ConsultancyImportance ofTraining ConsultanciesTraining ProblemsTraining CycleTraining Needs AnalysisAttributes and 9505050Chapter 3: Learning and Training54IntroductionDefinition and Concepts of a Learning OrganizationCharacteristics of a Learning OrganizationSteps for Developing a Learning OrganizationImplementation of StrategiesTraining and LearningDomains of LearningReinforcementTheorySocial Learning TheoryAndragogy—TheTheory of Adult LearningGoal-setting TheorySocial Cognitive TheorySelf-directed Learning (SDL)Model of a Learning OrganizationLearning Cycle, Behavioural Changes and a Learning CurveLearning Cycle for Learning OrganizationBehavioural Changes for Learning OrganizationsLearning CurveCalculationsSystems Theory and a Learning OrganizationLearning StylesResistance to 56565666868

ContentsChapter 4:Personality Development through TrainingIntroductionDefinition and ConceptsCharacteristics of PersonalityDeterminants of PersonalityTheoriesand Structureof PersonalityPersonality TypesTheLeader—Type A PersonalityThe Socializer—Type B PersonalityThe Type C PersonalityThe Type D PersonalityPersonality OppositesJungian Types, Myers-Briggs and the FourTemperamentsPersonality Constructs Based on Our Physical TypePersonality InventoriesPersonality DevelopmentMeasurement of Personality TraitsPersonality and RecruitmentPersonality and EmploymentTestingValidity and Reliability of the Selection TestsTest of Intelligence as EmployabilityTestPerformance IntelligenceTestEmotional IntelligenceTwo Aspects of Emotional IntelligenceThe Five Domains of Emotional QuotientEthical Guidelines for Psychological TestingPersonality and Career ChoiceJohari Window and Personality, and Training on PersonalityPersonality AssessmentTransactional Analysis and 9808282828383838484848585868788Chapter 5: Competency-based Training and Development91IntroductionDefinitions and ConceptsSkills and CompetenciesCompetencies and Knowledge ManagementType of CompetenciesCompetency CharacteristicsCompetency MappingCompetency Mapping ProcessProcess of Competency MappingSteps of a Competency Identification ProcessSteps to Introduce a Competency-based SystemAdvantages of a Competency-based Approach929293949495959696979898xi

Training and Development:iiDeveloping a Competency ModelApproaches to Competency Development ModelsExamples of HR CompetenciesBusiness Partner's RoleChange AgentLeadershipCompetency-based Performance Management SystemsEssential Elements of Competency-based Performance Management SystemsMonitor Performance and FeedbackComplete Employee Profile and Development PlanBegin Succession Planning/Talent ManagementCompetency DictionaryCompetency-based Training and 106110117Chapter 6: Training Needs Analysis120IntroductionSources for Identifying Training NeedsJob Profile AnalysisAnalysis through Professional Training ConsultantsAnalysis through a Pre-training SurveyBenefits of Needs AssessmentTNA at Different LevelsOrganizational-Ievel TNAIndividual-Ievel TNAOperational-Ievel TNAProcess of TNAPurpose of TNASteps in a TNA processTypes of Needs AnalysesTechniques for Determining SpecificTraining NeedsObservationInterviewsJob DescriptionsJob Difüculty AnalysisPerformance Review MeetingStudy of Employees, Motivation and DriveReckoning the Organizational PolicyImportance of Focus Croups in TNADeveloping the Training PlanFramework for Training Needs IdentificationTNA r 7: Training Policy, Plans and Resources135IntroductionTraining PolicyNeed for a Training Policy135136136

Structure of a Training PolicyChecklist for an Effective Training PolicyGeneral InformationTemplate ofa Training PolicyBenefits ofTraining PoliciesTraining PlanBenefits ofa Training PlanSteps for Designing a Training PlanTemplate ofa Training PlanBudgeting for TrainingTemplate ofa Training BudgetTraining ProcessFramework ofa Training Process ModelRole ofa Training ManagerTraining TransferSummaryChapter 8:Designing Training ProgrammesIntroductionHow to Design TrainingSteps in Training DesignAdvantages ofTraining DesignModels ofTraining or Instructional DesignADDIE Model ofTraining DesignDick and Carey ModelKemp's Training Design ModelTraining Design and Work EnvironmentWork Environment Factors forTraining DesignTraining Design TemplateSample Training ProgrammesExperiential TrainingThe Experiential Training Design ProcessSummaryChapter 9: Training MethodologyIntroductionDifferent Methods ofTrainingSteps of a Case Study for the LearnersRole-play Exercises for Performance ManagementRemove Blocking and Block BustingSources of BlockingInductionObjectives of Induction ProgrammesComponents of an Induction ProgrammeSteps in an Induction ProgrammeEmployee Socialization ProcessModels of Employee SocializationPlacement

Training and DevelopmentImportance of Induction and PlacementTraining AidsAdvantages and Disadvantages ofTraining MethodsTraining AlternativesMentoring and CoachingJob RotationAssistants to PositionProjects and BoardsEmployee CounsellingObjectives/Functions of CounsellingTypes of CounsellingTraining through Team BuildingTeam-building ExercisesT-groupRole AnalysisMembership for Team EffectivenessHow to Improve TeamworkTraining Through Adventure ToursSummaryChapter 10: E-training or E-Iearning Methods ofTrainingIntroductionTypes of E-trainingDesigning E-training ProgrammesComputer-based TrainingTraining with MultimediaLearning Management SystemsE-training TransferabilitySummaryChapter 11: Training EvaluationIntroductionSample Evaluation MatrixImportant Considerations for Designing Training-evaluation ModelsProblems ofTraining EvaluationOvercoming the Problems ofTraining EvaluationRequirements for EffectiveTraining EvaluationTypes ofTraining EvaluationTraining Benchmark MetricsCalculation of Cost-benefits ofTrainingSteps for Calculating the Cost and BenefitsTraining Evaluation ModelsKirkpatrick Four-Ievel Approach forTraining Impact EvaluationHassett's Training Investment Analysis ApproachCIPP Approach to EvaluationKaufman's Five-Ievel Evaluation ofTraining ImpactCIRO Model ofTraining EvaluationPhillips'Five-Ievel ROI ModelIPO Model

ContentsTraining Valuation System ModelFinancial Utility ModelSummary220220223Chapter 12: Training for Career Flanning and Development226IntroductionMeaning and Definition of CareerImportant Elements of CareerMeaning and Overview of Career DevelopmentWhy Career Development?Significance and Advantages of Career DevelopmentPurposes and Objectives of Career DevelopmentTypes of Career Development ProgrammesChanging Career Development Needs of OrganizationNew Challenges in Career ManagementInterrelation of Career Development with Other Human Resource Development FunctionsDifference with Career FlanningDifference with Manpower FlanningDifference with Succession FlanningDifferent Stages or Cycles of Career Development ProcessExploratory StageEstablishment StageMaintenance StageStage ofDedineIssues in Career Development ProcessExploratory StageEstablishment StageMaintenance StageDecline StageCareer AnchorsSchein s Career Anchor TheoryCareer Development and Employee EmpowermentIssues InvolvedIndian ScenarioCareer Flanning and Career Development ProcessIntegration of Career Development Process with Career Stage and Family IssuesDeveloping Career Paths Compatible to Changing NeedsSteps of Career Flanning ProcessPreparing Personnel Skills InventoriesDeveloping Career PathsPut the Right Man at the Right PlaceImpartTrainingReview and CounselFuture of Career Flanning and Development in India—Some Organizational IssuesSuccession FlanningSteps of Succession FlanningManagement DevelopmentCharacteristics of Management 1241241242242243244244244244246246247247

Training and DevelopmentComponents of Management Development Programmes (MDPs)Steps of a Management Development ProgrammeObjectives and Purposes of Management Development ProgrammesTechniques of Management DevelopmentAuditing a Management Development ProgrammeWhy Management Development Programmes Fall in Most of the OrganizationOrganizational DevelopmentSummaryChapter 13: Training for Organizational DevelopmentIntroductionDefinition and Concepts of Organization DevelopmentRole of Organizational Development as an Important Area of the HRD ActivityProcess of Development of the Organization Development ConceptThe Laboratory StemThe Survey Research Feedback StemThe Socio-technical StemGrowth of Organization Development Practices in OrganizationsOrganization Development Intervention StagesCommon Features of Organization DevelopmentCharacteristics of Organization DevelopmentAreas of Organizational Change Effected Through Organization DevelopmentOrganization Development and Management DevelopmentGoals of Organization DevelopmentSteps in Organization DevelopmentImportantTriggers for Organization Development Need for Organization Development in OrganizationsOrganization Development and Organizational InvolvementOrganization Development and Leadership DevelopmentPersonal Profiling for Career Development, Organization Development and the Role of Consultants- Organizational Life Cycle AnalysisISganizational Development Intervention ToolsOrganization Development and Different Organizational Change ApproachesMentoring'Performance Counselling ummaryOtapter 14: International Training and Development, Introduction cfifes-cultural TrainingGeneric Contents of a Cross-cultural Training ModuleSpecific Contents of a Cross-cultural Marketing ModuleCross-cultural Training MethodsManaging DiversityEffective Management of Workplace DiversityDiversity and Business PerformanceImportant Issues for Diversity Management

ContentsBest HRD Strategies for Working with DiversityComponents of Effective Diversity Training ProgrammesCross-cultural Issues and 1INDEX1-1X\

How to Design Training Steps in Training Design Advantages ofTraining Design Models ofTraining or Instructional Design ADDIE Model ofTraining Design Dick and Carey Model Kemp's Training Design Model Training Design and Work Environment Work Environment Factors forTraining Design Training