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Decimals and Percents

Decimals and PercentsDecimalsMathematics in everyday life involves more than just wholenumbers. We also use decimals and fractions to namenumbers that are between whole numbers.Both decimals and fractions are used to name a part of a wholething or a part of a collection. Decimals and fractions are alsoused to make more precise measurements than can be madeusing only whole numbers.Fractional parts of a dollar are almost always written asdecimals. The receipt at the right shows that lunch costbetween 25 dollars and 26 dollars. The “64” in the costnames a part of a dollar.You probably see many other uses of decimals every day.Weather reports give rainfall amounts in decimals. The averageannual rainfall in New Orleans, Louisiana, is 66.28 inches.Digital scales in supermarkets show the weight of fruits,vegetables, and meat with decimals.Winners of many Olympic events are often decided by timesmeasured to hundredths, and sometimes even thousandths,of a second. Florence Griffith-Joyner’s winning time for the100-meter run in 1988 was 10.54 seconds.Many sports statistics use decimals. In 1993, basketball playerMichael Jordan averaged 32.6 points per game. In 1901,baseball player Napoleon Lajoie had a batting average of .426.Cars have instruments called odometers that measuredistance. The word odometer comes from the Greekwords odos, which means road, and metron, whichmeans measure. The odometer at the right shows12,963, which means the car has traveledat least 12,963 miles. The trip meter aboveit is more precise and shows tenths of a miletraveled. The trip meter at the right showsthe car has traveled at least 45.6 milessince it was last reset to 0.Decimals use the same base-ten place-value system that wholenumbers use. The way you compute with decimals is verysimilar to the way you compute with whole numbers.26twenty-six

Decimals and PercentsUnderstanding DecimalsDecimals are another way to write fractions. Many fractionshave denominators of 10, 100, 1,000, and so on. It is easy towrite the decimal names for fractions like these.4 1042 100 0.4 0.42This square is divided into10 equal parts. Each part is1 of the square. The decimal101name for 10 is 0.1.This square is divided into100 equal parts. Each part is1 of the square. The decimal1001 name for 100 is 0.01.4 1042 100of the square is shaded. The4decimal name for 1 0 is 0.4.Decimals were invented bythe Dutch scientist SimonStevin in 1585. But thereis no single worldwideform for writing decimals.Americans write thedecimal 3.25, while theBritish write 3.25 andthe Germans and Frenchwrite 3 , 25.of the square is shaded. The42 decimal name for 100 is 0.42.In a decimal, the dot is called the decimal point. It separatesthe whole number part from the decimal part. A number withone digit after the decimal point names tenths. A number withtwo digits after the decimal point names hundredths. A numberwith three digits after the decimal point names thousandths.tenthshundredths3 0.23 1007 0.75 1009 0.02 100 0.3 10 0.7 10 0.9 10thousandths23 0.151 1,00015175 0.002 1,0002 0.087 1,0002871. Write each fraction as a decimal.a.7 10b.2 100c.987 1,000d.88 100e.6 1,0002. Write each decimal as a fraction.a. 0.45b. 0.6c. 0.074d. 0.90e. 0.09Check your answers on page 340.twenty-seven27

Decimals and PercentsOur System for Recording NumbersThe first systems for writing numbers were primitive. AncientEgyptians used a stroke to record the number 1, a picture of anupside-down oxbow for 10, a coil of rope for 100, a lotus plant for1,000, and a picture of a god supporting the sky for 1,000,000.This is how an ancient Egyptian would write the number 43:NoteOur system for writing numbers was invented in India andlater improved in Arabia. It is called a base-ten system. It usesonly 10 symbols, which are called digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,and 9. In this system, you can write any number using onlythese 10 digits.For a number written in the base-ten system, each digit has avalue that depends on its place in the number. That is why itis called a place-value 5It should come as nosurprise that ournumber system usesexactly 10 symbols.People probably countedon their fingers whenthey first startedusing numbers.In the number 6,075:6 is in the thousands place; its value is 6 thousands, or 6,000.0 is in the hundreds place; its value is 0.7 is in the tens place; its value is 7 tens, or 70.5 is in the ones place; its value is 5 ones, or 5.The 0 in 6,075 serves a very important purpose. It “holds” thehundreds place so that the 6 can be in the thousands place.When used in this way, zero is called a placeholder.The Babylonians used asymbol for zero asearly as 300 B.C. Butthe circle was not usedas a symbol for zerountil A.D. 500 in India.twenty-nine29

Decimals and PercentsThe base-ten system works the same way for decimals as it doesfor whole enths0.1s0.01s0.001s36.7043.250hundredths thousandthsIn the number 36.704,77 is in the tenths place; its value is 7 tenths, or 1 0 , or 0.7.0 is in the hundredths place; its value is 0.4 4 is in the thousandths place; its value is 4 thousandths, or 1,000 , or 0.004.In the number 3.250,22 is in the tenths place; its value is 2 tenths, or 1 0 , or 0.2.5 is in the hundredths place; its value is 5 hundredths, or0 is in the thousandths place; its value is 0.Right to Left in the Place-Value ChartStudy this place-value chart. Look at the numbers that namethe places. As you move from right to left along the chart, eachnumber is 10 times as large as the number to its right.oneone1 1001 10 ten ten1 s1,0001 s1001 s10one 1 tenone 10 ten 1sone 100 ten 10sone 1,000 ten 100s30thirty5 ,100or 0.05.

Decimals and PercentsYou use facts about the place-value chart each time you maketrades using base-10 blocks.Suppose that a flat is worth 1.1Then a long is worth 10 , or 0.1; and a cube1 is worth 100 , or 0.01.You can trade one long for ten cubes because11 one 1 0 equal ten 100 s.You can trade ten longs for one flat because1ten 10 s equals one 1.You can trade ten cubes for one long because11 ten 100 s equals one 10 .Left to Right in the Place-Value ChartStudy the place-value chart below. Look at the numbers thatname the places. As you move from left to right along the chart,1each number is 1 0 as large as the number to its left.one 100 one 10 one 1 oneoneone1 101 1001 1,000 1 101 101 101 101 101 10of 1,000of 100of 10of 1ofof1 101 1001. What is the value of the digit 2 in each of these numbers?a. 24.7b. 0.21c. 31.62d. 4.123e. 0.0022. Tell how much each digit in 87.654 is worth.3. What is the smallest decimal you can write using the digits 8, 2, and 4?Check your answers on page 340.thirty-one31

Decimals and PercentsComparing DecimalsOne way to compare decimals is to model them with base-10blocks. The flat is usually the whole, or ONE.Compare 0.27 and 0.3.2 longs and 7 cubes are less than 3 longs.So, 0.27 is less than 0.3. 0.27 0.3Another way to compare decimals is to draw pictures of base-10 blocks.Base-10 Blocks and Their Shorthand Picturescubelongflatbig cubeCompare 2.3 and 2.16.2 flats and 3 longs are more than 2 flats, 1 long,and 6 cubes.So, 2.3 is more than 2.16. 2.3 2.16In the next example, the big cube is the whole, or ONE.Compare 2.13 and 2.073.Each picture shows 2 big cubes.1 flat and 3 longs are more than 7 longs and 3 cubes.So, 2.13 is more than 2.073. 2.13 2.07332thirty-two

Decimals and PercentsYou can write a 0 at the end of a decimal without changing thevalue of the decimal: 0.7 0.70. Attaching 0s is sometimes called“padding with 0s.” Think of it as trading for smaller pieces.0.3 0.30Trade each longfor 10 cubesPadding with 0s makes comparing decimals easier.Compare 0.2 and 0.05.Compare 0.99 and 1.0.2 0.20 (Trade 2 longs for 20 cubes.)20 cubes are more than 5 cubes.20 hundredths is more than 5 hundredths.1 1.00 (Trade 1 flat for 100 cubes.)99 cubes are less than 100 cubes.99 hundredths is less than 100 hundredths.0.20 0.05, so 0.2 0.05.0.99 1.00, so 0.99 1A place-value chart can also be used to compare decimals.Compare 3.915 and ndths3.9153.972The ones digits are the same. They are both worth 3.The tenths digits are the same. They are both worth 9 tenths, or 0.9.The hundredths digits are not the same. The 1 is worth 1 hundredth, or 0.01.The 7 is worth 7 hundredths, or 0.07. The 7 is worth more than the 1.So, 3.915 is less than 3.972.3.915 3.972Compare the numbers in each pair.1. 0.68, 0.21 , 0.512Check your answers on page 341.2. 5.39, 5.53.4. 0.999, 1.1thirty-three33

Decimals and PercentsAdding and Subtracting DecimalsThere are many ways to add and subtract decimals.One way to add and subtract decimals is to use base-10 blocks.The flat is usually the whole, or ONE.2.34 1.27 ?First, use blocks to show2.34 and 1.27Second, trade 10 cubesfor 1 long.By counting all the blocks,you can see that you have3 flats, 6 longs, and 1 cube.The blocks show 3.61.2.34 1.27 3.61Finally, it’s a good idea to make a quick estimate.Since 2.34 is more than 2 and 1.27 is more than1, the answer should be more than 3, which it is.To subtract with base-10 blocks, count out blocks for the largernumber, and take away blocks for the smaller number. Thencount the remaining blocks.1.5 0.25 ?Show 1.5 with blocks.You want to take away 0.25(2 longs and 5 cubes). To dothis, trade 1 long for 10 cubes.Now remove 2 longsand 5 cubes (0.25)One flat, 2 longs, and5 cubes are left.These blocks show 1.25.1.5 0.25 1.2534thirty-four

Decimals and PercentsIt is often easier to use shorthand pictures instead of realbase-10 blocks.1.52 2.6 ?First, draw pictures foreach number.Next, draw a ring around10 longs and trade themfor a flat.After the trade, there are 4flats, 1 long, and 2 cubes.These blocks show 4.12.1.52 2.6 4.12.1This makes sense because 1.52 is near 1 2 and12.6 is near 2 2 , so the answer should be around 4,which it is.Shorthand pictures of blocks are also useful for subtraction.4.07 2.5 ?The picture for 4.07 doesnot show any longs.You want to take away 2.5(2 flats and 5 longs). To dothis, trade 1 flat for 10 longs.Now remove 2 flats and5 longs (2.5).1 flat, 5 longs, and 7cubes are left.These blocks show 1.57.4.07 2.5 1.57thirty-five35