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Industrial Training ReportOn“Hardware & Networking”Diploma InElectronics & Communication EngineeringYear 2008-09.Submitted By:Maulik Patel (S-133006102)Name of the Internal Guide:Name of the External Guide:Mr.Nayan TrivediMr.Pankaj Patel(Head E.C Dept)P.I.E.T, Limda(Assistant Manager)EITL (ELECON)Submitted ToParul Institute of Engineering and Technology (Diploma Studies)Diploma in Electronics and Communication Engg. DepartmentLimda,Vaghodia,Vadodara

CERTIFICATEThis is to certify thatMr.Maulik Patel (S-133006102)Is Student of Diploma in Electronics & Communication Engineering, hassatisfactorily completed his Industrial Training work as a part of coursecurriculum in Diploma of Engineering semester VI th having a company name“Elecon Information Technology Limited”Name of Internal GuideDesignationE&C Dept.Mr. Nayan B. TrivediHead, E&C Dept.PIET, Limda.PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGYELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT LIMDA, VAGHODIA,VADODARA

COMPANY PROFILEEITL is the IT division of the Elecon group of companies and has an experience of more than13 years in the field of hardware, software and networking solutions. Situated in theheart of Vithal Udyognagar an Industrial Estate and in the proximity of theeducational town of Vallabh Vidyanagar, EITL is all set to reach new heights in thefieldofITsolutions.We are a professional team providing IT solutions to enable businesses andorganizations to respond proactively to the demands of emerging global businessscene. Through the intelligent and relevant application of technology in a diversity ofsituations, EITL plans to help businesses and organizations push the limits ofexcellence, optimizing their strengths to achieve their goals.INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER (ISP):Design and Technology ConsultingENGINEERING SERVICES:Based on a combination of engineering knowledge, software services, and industrialexperience, EITL offers a wide spectrum of engineering software services in the areasof CAD/CAM/CAE. We undertake Product Design and Analysis using C.A.D.software like: SDRC IDEAS Master Series AutoDesk Mechanical Desktop 2000 and AutoCAD 2000 SDRC PDM

TRAINING SERVICES: Hands-on training (functional / tools) Workflow Management on ERP (Baan & Oracle) Lotus Domino R5 Installation and ConfigureNETWORKING SERVICES: These services enable corporate to set up LAN/WAN/ MAN/VPN networks toconnect various offices, branches, and users across various locations The Network Solutions group has Cisco, AVAYA and Microsoft CertifiedProfessionals who execute complex networking solutions - voice / data networks,leased lines, ISDN connectivity, network security, etc. Network Performance & Security Audit

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Pankaj Patel and all engineersfor giving me an opportunity to do training at ELECON INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY LIMITED.We got the good knowledge of trouble shooting of hardware, networking related problemsand connecting local area networking. We feel very lucky to undergo training in suchorganizing. They have shown us right path that we could follow in the future to reachmaximum possible heights in my life.Finally, we like to thanks all staff member of EITL for their very good support during mytraining.

PREFACEThe basic goal of the information technology is to efficiently capture and organize theavailable information in a manner that would avail the management to concretes more ondecisional issue rather than daily business chores. This has been very important factor in thegrowth of computer technology and its quick amalgamation with the different businessprocess.ELECON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY LIMITED (EITL) has most advancingcomputing facilities available at its hand to meet its business needs.It has rich experience to work in a technically advance environment EITL. A student gets avaluable experience of various business processes, System development methodologies andstrategies. This project is the part of the second semester study, which gives me valuableopportunity to implement theoretical knowledge into practical life.The project duration was Three & Half month. This commenced from 9 th February to 23rdMay 2009.

COMPANY ABSTRACT Name:Elecon Information Technology Limited Address:Anand- Sojitra Road, V.V.NagarGujarat-388120 Contact: Tel.Fax. -(02692) 230963,227299(02692) 231792,236457 Internet:www.eleconinfotech.com Contact Person:Mr. Jigar Patel , Manager(Hardware & Networking) Date of Establishment:1951

INDEXHARDWARESr. noContentsPg. no1.Introduction42.Classification Of Computers43.What is a Personal Computer?6CPU Box7Motherboard8Processor10Keyboard12Video Display Unit(Monitor)16Mouse18Ports(Connectors)19Interface cards21Floppy disk drive and Diskette23Hard Disk26Formatting & Partitioning Hard Disk32Printer34Compact Disk Drive364.What is Hardware & Software?375.Memory386.Power Supply Unit427.Maintaining A Computer Hardware478.Booting A Computer489.Basic Trouble Shooting5110.Computer Networking57

INDEXNETWOKINGSr. noContentsPg. no11.Introduction6612.Networking Basics6713.Designing Of Ethernet aphy96

Chapter 1IntroductionHARDWARE

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)INTRODUCTIONThe term computer has been borrowed from compute that means – to calculate. Whereas,initially computer were use to perform arithmetic calculation as fast speed, now they are useto nearly every field. You can use computer for banking application, word processing,desktop publishing, weather forecasting, railway reservation, control of machines or robot infactories, scientific research, etc. in brief a computer may be define as a device that receivesome kind of data, analysis it, and than applies a predefine set of instruction to it to producesome kind of output. For instant evasion in the computer. The computer then analysis the datafed by the operator and makes a reservation. Then it prints a ticked for you. The ticket is theoutput generated by the computer based on the reservation request entered by the operator. Itis also said that the computer is a data processor, because it can receive, store, processes andretrieve any kind of data. For instant you can store the names and addresses of all employeesworking in a company in a computer file. Latter, you can ask the computer to print list ofonly those employees who work in the accounts departmentP.I.E.T.D.S-8-

Chapter 2ClassificationOfComputersHARDWARE

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERSAlthough a clear cut classification of computer is difficult, computer can be broadly classifiedon the basis of purpose, components and size and processing power.PURPOSE Analog Computers Digital Computers Hybrid ComputersANALOG COMPUTERAnalog computers are computers that measure physical quantities (e. g. Pressure,temperature, length etc. ) and the convert them to numeric values. For example athermometer does not perform calculations but measures the temperature of the body bycomparing the relative expansion mercury.Uses: Analog Computer is used mainly for scientific and engineering purpose becausethey deal with quantities that very constantly. They give only approximate result.P.I.E.T.D.S-9-

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)DIGITAL COMPUTERMost computers are digital device. i. e. they process information using numbers which isessentially in a binary or two state formats.Uses: special purpose digital computers can be fixed permanently into the machine. For e.g.processor that are installed in automobiles to be control fuel, braking system etc.General-purpose digital computers can be used in different application since they can be storedifferent sets of instructions and programs.HYBRID COMPUTERSThe features of analog and digital machines are combined to create a hybrid computingsystem. For e.g. analog devices measure a patient‘s vital signs like temperature, heartfunctions etc. these are then converted to numbers and supplied to the digital components thatmonitor the patient‘s vital signs. Any fluctuations can be thus noticed immediately.P.I.E.T.D.S- 10 -

Chapter 3What IsPersonal Computer?HARDWARE

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)WHAT IS A PERSONAL COMPUTER?The typical personal computer (PC) is shown in figure 1.2. A typical PC Consist of theFollowing Units:Motherboard System Cabinet Processor SMPS Keyboard Mouse Video Display Unit (Monitor) Floppy Disk Drive(s) Hard Disk Drive(s) Printer CD DriveNormally a PC also has a Printer. Your PC may also have other devices such as the compactDisk (CD) Drive, Scanner, Zip Drive, etcFigure 1.2 A Typical personal ComputerP.I.E.T.D.S- 11 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)CPU BOXThe CPU box houses the heart and brain of the computer. All electronic circuit, powersupply, floppy drive(s), and hard drive(s) are housed in this box. The shape and the size of thebox may differ from the computer to computer. However, they all have the same electroniccircuit and parts inside. The storage unit of the memory of the computer is also in the samebox. The primary memory of the PC is housed on the electronic circuit board kept in this box.These boards are not visible from the outside. The CPU box also houses the floppy diskdrive(s) and Hard disk drive(s) that from the secondary memoryP.I.E.T.D.S- 12 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)CABINETComputer cabinet are fitted with doors and side panels(Which may or maynot be removable).Cabinets enclose a rack,which is a frame that provides a means formounting electronic equipments come in a variety of styles,colors,and many containbaffles,fans and other features.P.I.E.T.D.S- 13 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)MOTHERBOARDThe motherboard is a circuit on which all the electronic components of computer areconnected. This include both internal parts of the system unit like Processor, display card ofthe monitor, sound card, memory etc and the connector of external parts like mouse,keyboard, hard disk, floppy disk etc. The ‗ports‘ and ‗slots‘, which connect thesecomponents, also exist in the motherboard. The circuits in the motherboard help in datatransfer among the components. Bios, RAM slots and Chipset are too mounted on themotherboard.Motherboard Components:1)Microprocessor11) Decoders, multiplexers, Gates,F/F2)Interrupt Controller12) Jumpers and DIP3)Timer13) Transistors and Diodes4)PPI14) Ports and connectors5)Clock generator15) Built in Speakers6)Bus Controller16) AGP Slot7)DMA Controller17) CMOS battery8)DRAM18) External Cache9)ROM19) PCI expansion slots10) I/O SlotsP.I.E.T.D.S- 14 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)Motherboard LayoutP.I.E.T.D.S- 15 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)The important constituent components of an ATX Motherboard are givenbelow:1.Mouse & keyboard2. USB3. Parallel port4. CPU Chip5. RAM slots6. Floppy controller7. IDE controller8. PCI slot9. ISA slot10. CMOS Battery11. AGP slot12. CPU slot13. Power supply plug inP.I.E.T.D.S- 16 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)Processor One of the most important parts of computer called as heart of computer. The brain of acomputer is it processor. The processor in a modern computer is an Integrated Circuit (IC)chip. A chip of millions of transistors and capacitors which can processthe data obtained through input devices and transfer the result to the output units. Processorsfrom different companies are available today. Intel-PentiumIV, Xenon,Celeron,AMDAthlon,Cyrix M3 etc. are popular.Arithmetic and Logic Unit & Control Unit (ALU & CPU) The two main parts of a processor are Ariyhmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) and ControlUnoit(CU).The function of the ALU is to do the processing and mathematical calculations ofthe information obtained through input devices. The control unit sorts this information and sends it to the different parts of the computerlike the manager of an office.The control unit organizes and coordinates various functions ofa computer.The orderly and fast functioning of a computer indicates the efficiencyof thecontrol unit.P.I.E.T.D.S- 17 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)CPU FAN WITH COOLING KIT A fan is often fixed on the processor to remove the heat generated by continuousactivity. This is known as the processor fan.Processor Socket: The processor socket is used ti fix the processor in a computer. Differentkinds of motherboards are available today, depending upon the size and the no. of pins in aprocessor,P.I.E.T.D.S- 18 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)KEYBOARDThe keyboard of a computer looks quite similar to the keyboard of a typical typewriter. Thekeyboard may have 84, 101, or 104 keys. The keys on the computer keyboard are arranged inthe same order as on the keyboard of an ordinary typewriter. There a few additional key onthe computer keyboard.The keyboard contains alphanumeric keys to enter the string and the numbers. For thefrequent calculation and the numerical entries, numeric pad is provided. There are alsofunction keys. Use of them is to perform specific function with a single key stroke.KEYBOARD FUNCTIONGenerally the key switches are connected in a matrix of rows and columns. Each key hasfixed set of coordinates.Function Of The Keyboard Are : Sending a key depression Encoding Sending the code to the computer.A standard technique known as scanning is followed by the KB electronics. The rowsare used as inputs to matrix. The keyboards electronics sends signals to the matrixthrough the rows. The columns are used as an output from the matrix. The columnlines are sensed by the electronics circuit.P.I.E.T.D.S- 19 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)KEYBOARD INTERFACEThe keyboard interface receive the scan mode in the serial format from the keyboard,assemble the serial data in to a parallel d8 bit scan code, and generate the interrupt request tothe interrupt to the logic, the system switch follows specific protocol with the microprocessoron board, for data transfer and the control sequences. The keyboard interface hardwareconsists of following functional section.1. Serial to parallel converter ( shift Register )2. interrupt generation logic3. The scan code port of PPL on the mother boardThe serial to parallel converter is enabling by the switch. Once the scan mode is assembledinterrupt, request and is generated. The request freezes the shift register. The interrupt serviceroutine enabled the shift register output which is connected to the input of the motherboardPPI subsequent the service routine reads this scan code through port A. the interrupt serviceroutine also clear the shift register as to prepare it for next scan code.P.I.E.T.D.S- 20 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)KEYBOARD PROBLEM No Response Of Any Stroke From Keyboard.Check connection between keyboard and computer, the may be loose in the socket or thecable may be damaged. If connecting another keyboard does solve the problem the fault issupply line. Check Keyboard Massage AppearsIt means that the computer has not found usual code while checking the keyboard. Thisbecause of incapability between AT style and XT machine or vice versa. Any Character Stats Repeating While Machine StartupThe connect for the key would have become jammed so open the keyboard and remove thekey contact which has got stuck All Keys Produce Wrong CharacterIf replacement of keyboard does not solve the problem to points to serious in the operatingsystem. If problem is solving by the replacement could be in then keyboard electronicscircuit. Optimal PressureAlthough the computer keyboard is similar to the mechanical type writer keyboard. It is anelectronic equipment and requires more gentle handling than a mechanical keyboard. The keyswitches are soft touch keys and the excessive pressure on the key top may cause damage tothe computer keyboard. DustMost of the familiar occurs due to the minor problems like dust. These keys will not makeproper contact due to dust. It is advisable to cover the keyboard when not in use and clean itonce in the mouse with the small vacuum cleaner.P.I.E.T.D.S- 21 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON) LiquidThis occurs when someone accidentally spills a liquid on the keyboard while the computerrunning. Cleaning the keyboard is not and easy job. And something this may result in damageto the electronic circuitry inside. If there is nay liquid spill, the computer should be switch offand the liquid cleaned immediately with a clean cloth. The computer should be switches ONonly when the keyboard is dry.P.I.E.T.D.S- 22 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)VIDEO DISPLAY UNIT (VDU) / MONITORWhen you type text through the keyboard, it is not directly printed on the sheet of paper.Instead, it is display on a Video Display Unit (VDU) or Monitor that looks similar to anordinary television screen. The current typing position on the screen is informed through aspecial character displayed on the screen. This special character is called cursor. The cursorcan have different shapes in different programs. However, its usual shape is blinking / nonblinking vertical I beam, the underscore character ( ) or the solid rectangle. The cursor isshown on the monitor where the next typed ( Keyed-in) character will be accepted anddisplays. When you type a character, it is display at the cursor position and the cursoradvances to the next position on the monitor.A monitor is an output system. It main work is to display the characters. A video monitor islike and color television without the circuitry for receiving station and also audio section.The IBM monochrome and the color displays are based on the CRT video technology.Inside there is electron gun that forces a stream of electrons at the screen to rechargeeach dot. The screen is coated with the phosphor substance that glows for a short timewhen hit by the electrons. The electrons beams scans in the horizontal direction acrossthe screen one line at a time. As the line is scanned the scream of electron as turnedON or OFF at controlled times. When they on a small spot (pixel) are formed andscreen glows. The pixels are used to create an image on the screen.P.I.E.T.D.S- 23 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)TYPES OF MONITORSa.Digital or TTLb.AnalogCOMPARISON BETWEEN ANALOG AND DIGITAL MONITORSIt is difficult to distinguish a digital monitor from a analog monitor just by looking at theCRT type.The Difference Between Them Is Follows:Analog monitors have better quality of phosphors coating on the inside of CRT ascompared to that of digital monitor.The video signal is that the digital monitor is of TTL positive type while in analogmonitors. It is of both type of TTL positive and TTL negative.The horizontal frequency in the analog monitor is between 29 KHz and 38 KHz,which makes in usable in the various types of modes. In the digital monitor thefrequency 18.432 KHz in CGA mode.The vertical scanning frequency in analog monitors ranges from 49 to 95 Hz.Analog monitors have a 40 MHz band.P.I.E.T.D.S- 24 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)MOUSEMouse is a device that is used in the window based program. The mouse acts as an interfacebetween the PC and the User. You can move the mouse to move the cursor. Select option andto execute commands, as an alternative to entering command through the keyboard. Themouse can have a different shapes and sizes. Your mouse has two or three buttons.The mouse is kept on a flat surface. When you move the mouse on the surface, the MousePointer also moves in the same direction in the screen. Thus you can move the mouse pointeron the desired commands or option display on the monitor. To select command or option youcan press the corresponding mouse button and then release it. Pressing mouse button is alsocalled Clicking. Most of the time, you will also use the left mouse button to select thecommands or option. The right mouse button is sometimes used by some programs toperform specific function.For starting ( Launching ) a program, closing an open window, opening a directory or toselect a word, you may be required to Double-Click the mouse buttons. Double clickingrequires pressing the left mouse button rapidly twice. You might require some practice to getthe feel of double clicking the mouse. We will tell you more about using the mouse later.P.I.E.T.D.S- 25 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)Ports (Connectors): A computer system becomes complete only when different parts are put together and theycommunicate properly. The connection of the parts within and outside the system unit is doneusing ports or connectors. These ports are connected directly to the motherboard or throughadd-on cards. The internal communication in a motherboard takes place through the tinycircuits printed on it. we can connect a computer to another computer to an input-outputdevice or to data storage device. Let us study different kind of ports.1)IDE Port: Integrated device electronics (IDE) is used to connect a hardisk, CDROM drive, CD-Writer or a DVD drive to a motherboard. There are two such ports in a motherboard-primaryand secondary. Two devices can be connected to each port.Fig.IDE PortFig. Floppy drive connector2) Floppy Drive Connector: The floppy disk drive connector is used to connect a floppy drive to the motherboard.The size of the FDD connector and the no. of pins in it are smaller than those of an IDEconnector.P.I.E.T.D.S- 26 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)3)Serial port: Serial Port is used to connect the mouse & modem. They are called COM1 &COM2.‘COM‘ is the short form of communication. Usually in a communication port thereare either 9 or 25 pins.Fig. Ports on motherboardP.I.E.T.D.S- 27 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)4) Parallel Port: In a parallel port, there are holes to connect pins. Subsidiary gadgets like printer,scanner etc. are connected through the parallel ports.5) USB Port:Universal serial bus(USB) port is a kind of port available in modern computers. Manydevices can be connected in series on the same USB.In comparison with serial and parallelports, a large amount of data can be transferred at a very high speed through USB ports. Allperipherals like printer, modem and scanner are now available in versions that can beconnected to the USB port.P.I.E.T.D.S- 28 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)Interface Cards An Interface Card is a circuit board that fits into an expansion slot. Examples of InterfaceCards are:1)NIC (Network Interface Card): Also called as Network Adaptor Card. This is used for connecting the PC to LAN. Every PC is connected to the LAN by somecables, such as Twisted Pair cables, thick or thin coaxial cable, and fiber optic cable. Each LAN adapter card must have a connector compatible with the type of LANcabling used.P.I.E.T.D.S- 29 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)2)Sound Card: It is used for connecting speakers, microphones and joystick. In a typical Audio Digitizer System, a microphone converts sound waves from air, intoan encoded, analog electrical signal. This analog signal is applied to the audio input of the sound card. These signals are applied to an A/D converter circuit on the card, which in turn changesthe signal into the correspondingdigital values. The sound card takes the analog waveform at predetermined intervals and convertsthem into corresponding digital values.P.I.E.T.D.S- 30 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)3)Video Card A 15-pin video card arranged in a three-line fashion, provides signals fromMotherboard to monitor for proper display.P.I.E.T.D.S- 31 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)FLOPPY DISK DRIVE AND DISKETTEThe computer would be very incomplete without the floppy drives. A floppy disk allowsinformation to be exchanged between two computers. All that needs to be done is to insert afloppy in the drive, copy the date from the hard disk to the floppy, and insert in it the machinewhere that data is required. It is still one of the easier and cost effective ways to exchangeinformation or data between two computers.The floppy is actually enclosed in a plastic jacket that protects if from heat, dust andelectrical shocks. When a floppy is expressed to any of the above, two things can be happen : The floppy can be physically damaged, which can lead to loss of the data which is onthe floppy. The floppy may remain intact, but there may still be a data loss.The Floppy Disk Drives is an important input / output ( I / O ) device in the PC. ( The I / Odevice is used for inputting (reading) and storing (Writing) information. The PC contains oneor more floppy disk device. The floppy disk drives are a storage device. It stored theinformation (Documents) on the floppy diskettes. That is inserted in the floppy disk drives.The floppy diskette is usually called floppy disk or just disk (Disc). The PC stores all types ofinformation, such as letters, computer programs, spreadsheet, databases, etc. in the floppydisk. When the PC requires the information stored in the floppy disk, it reads the informationback through the floppy disk drives. On the other word, the floppy disk drives are a storage orP.I.E.T.D.S- 32 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)reading / writing device and the floppy disk is storage medium. If you do not need theinformation stored on a disk any more, you can erase it. In this way, you can make room tostore new information on the same disk.The floppy disk is flexible plastic that has magnetic coating on one or both sides. This plasticdisk enclosed inside another square plastic jacket. Two of floppy disk is used in PCs. : 5.25‖ Floppy Disk ( Mini Floppy Disk ) 3.5‖ Floppy Disk ( Micro Floppy Disk )Beside the size, a micro floppy differs from a mini floppy disk in the following counts : The micro floppy disk is more rugged than the mini floppy disk. Where as the minifloppy disk uses a flexible jacket (outside cover), the micro floppy disk uses a rigid plasticcover. For the performing read or write operations, there is the small opening in the jacket ofthe mini floppy disk. Thus the magnetic disk in the mini floppy is always exposed to theenvironment through this opening in the micro floppy is covered with a shield. This shieldprotects the disk from the dust. When you insert the micro floppy disk in the floppy drive.The drive automatically opens the shield to perform the read or write operation. the write protect notch in a micro floppy disk has a built-in tab. You can use this tab todisable writing on the disk.P.I.E.T.D.S- 33 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)Floppy Interface Cable The floppy disk interface uses what is considered,by most people,a truly strange cable.Itis similar to standard IDE cable in that it is usually a flat,gray ribbon cable.P.I.E.T.D.S- 34 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)HARD DISKUnlike a floppy disk that is flexible and removable, the hard disk used in the PC ispermanently fixed. The hard disk has storage capacity of 10 MB (10,000,000 bytes orcharacter) or higher. The hard disk used in a higher end PC can have a storage capacity of upto 80 GB ( Giga Bytes; 1GB 1000 MB ). Now-a-days, hard disk capacities of 540 MB, 1GB, 1.6 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB, 8 GB, 10 GB, 20 GB, 40 GB are quite common. The data transferrate between the CPU and hard disk is much higher as compared to that between the CPU andfloppy disk Drives. The CPU can use the hard disk to load programs and data. As well as tostore data, the hard disk is very important input/output (I / O) device. The hard disk drivedoes not require any special care except that one should operate the PC with a hard disk in adust free and a cool room (preferably Air – Conditioned).The head can read / write from a portion of platter rotating beneath it. Data id organized in aset of concentric rings called tracks. Each track is the same width as the head. The samenumbers of bits are typically stored on each track. Thus the density increases towards theinnermost tracks.Data is stored and retrieved from the disk in blocks. Data is stored in block-size regionscalled sectors. The sector may be of fixed or variable length. Adjacent sector are separated byintra-track gaps. Certain control data is recorded on the disk to identify the start and end pointof a sector. The data is recorded during formatting and is used only by the disk drive. It is notaccessible to the user.A number of characteristics are used to differentiate between disks :The head may be fixed or movable. In a fixed-head disk there is one read/write head pertrack. The heads are mounted on a rigid arm. A shaft that rotates the disk and electronicsrequired for the input and output of the binary data.P.I.E.T.D.S- 35 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)A set of corresponding tracks on all structure of the disk pack equidistant from the spindle iscalled a cylinder.Commands to read or write are received from the computer by the disk controller. For writingon the disk pack the computer specifies the drive number, cylinder number, surface numberand sector number. The disk controller position ate arm assembly so that the read / write headreaches the specified cylinder. The time taken to the reach the specified cylinder is called theseek time. Seek time varies depending on the position of the arms assembly when the read /write command is performed. Maximum seek time is taken when the arms assembly has tomove from the outer most track to the inner most track. Minimum seek time is taken whenthe arms assembly is already positions over the required cylinder.TracksFigure 1 – Fixed HeadP.I.E.T.D.S- 36 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)TracksFigure 2 – Movable HeadSwitching is the process of switching the read / write head from one sector to another and it isan electronic and instantaneous operation. After the head is selected there is further delay –rotational latency. Because the required sector must reach the read / write head.Thus,Average access time average latency average seek time.Once the sector is reached. Data is read at the speed determined by the rotational speed of thedisk.The full set of these platters and the read and write heads are enclosed in a vacuumedcontainer, to protect it from dust and electric shocks. When the hard disk being accessed, itmakes a peculiar groaning sound. This indicates that the hard disk drive is an example of adevice that is both mechanical and electronic.P.I.E.T.D.S- 37 -

E.I.T.L-(ELECON)HARD DISK DRIVE ORGANIZATIONHard disk is sealed unit that holds most of the in a computer system. A hard disk dr

Industrial Training Report On . It has rich experience to work in a technically advance environment EITL. A student gets a valuable experience of various business processes, System development methodologies and strategies. This project is the part