Programme/project management: The results-based approachProgramme/projectmanagement:The results-basedapproach0951/002 05.2008 500May 2008PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT cover.indd 111.6.2008 17:28:46

The ICRC’s Economic Security Unit would like to thank Karla Levy of Groupe URD(Urgence, Réhabilitation, Développement) for her invaluable contribution to thedevelopment and design of this handbook and its accompanying training package.Some of the content of the handbook has been adapted from other existingmaterials, including the Groupe URD’s Dynamic COMPAS Tutorial.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 311.6.2008 17:39:33

Table of contents Jon Björgvinsson/ICRCPROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 411.6.2008 17:39:36

5PART I: CONTENT 91.INTRODUCTION 112.RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT is Results-Based Management? Focus on people: an ethical responsibility RBM terminology 2.3.1 The results chain 2.3.2 The RBM logic RBM in the ICRC: Planning for Results Project Cycle Management 2.5.1 Defining projects and interventions 2.5.2 The project cycle 2.5.3 Origins of PCM 2.5.4 Aims of PCM 2.5.5 PCM principles 131516161718181819212123PART II: PROCESS 273.THE PLANNING/DESIGN PHASE 294.PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 314.14.24.35.Aims of problem identification Stakeholder analysis Problem analysis 4.3.1 What is problem analysis? 4.3.2 The problem tree 4.3.3 How to create a problem tree OPERATIONAL STRATEGY 5.15.2The objective of an operational strategy Analysis of the objectives 5.2.1 The objectives tree 5.2.2 How to create an objectives tree PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 5Table of contentsTABLE OF CONTENTS313235353637434344444611.6.2008 17:39:37

Table of contents65.35.46.INTERVENTION LOGIC objective of the intervention logic The logical framework 6.2.1 What is a logical framework? 6.2.2 Creation of a logframe Formulating objectives Analysing external factors 6.4.1 Assumptions 6.4.2 Risk assessment using the logframe matrix The indicator framework 6.5.1 What is an indicator? 6.5.2 Types of indicators 6.5.3 How to define the indicators TOWARDS IMPLEMENTATION scope of the intervention 5.3.1 Defining the type of intervention 5.3.2 How to define the scope of the intervention Identification of the most appropriate strategies 5.4.1 Comparing and studying strategies 5.4.2 Analysis of advantages and disadvantages Source of verification 7.1.1 Defining the source of verification 7.1.2 Collection of information Activity schedule 7.2.1 Aim of the activity schedule 7.2.2 How to compile an activity schedule Programming resources The monitoring system 7.4.1 Monitoring 7.4.2 Design of a monitoring system 7.4.3 The monitoring report Fine-tuning the programme/project plan BIBLIOGRAPHY PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 5767879798183868911.6.2008 17:39:37

7Table of contentsPROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 711.6.2008 17:39:37

Part I: Content Laurent Duvillier/ICRCPROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 811.6.2008 17:39:40

9PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 9Part I: ContentPART I: CONTENT11.6.2008 17:39:41

Introduction Alain Pentucci/ICRCPROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 1011.6.2008 17:39:43

11The aim of this handbook is to introduce the user to ResultsBased Management (RBM) and its application in programme/project management. It describes the various componentsof RBM and Project Cycle Management and explains howto integrate and institutionalize them in field practice.It guides you through the various processes and makesrecommendations on how best to apply this app roach inthe field.Introduction1 INTRODUCTIONThe handbook accompanies the course on “Programme/Project Management: The Results-Based Approach” organ ized by the ICRC’s Economic Security Unit (Ecosec). Thecourse aims to strengthen the capacities of teams carryingout economic security or other similar programmes/projectsto design, plan and monitor results-driven interventions. Itprovides tools to analyse problems and stakeholders, defineobjectives, determine activities and monitor interventionsbased on the population’s needs. It is one of three Ecosec“basic courses”: Module 1: Assessment Module 2: Programme/Project Management: The ResultsBased Approach Module 3: Measuring ResultsThe course is compulsory for all Ecosec team members and isopen to other practitioners, such as staff of National Societiesand other ICRC units.The handbook and training package were compiled in linewith the ICRC’s management priority number 2, which aimsto reinforce RBM.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 1111.6.2008 17:39:43


132.1 What is Results-Based Management?Results-Based Management (RBM) is a managementstrategy that focuses on performance and the achieve ment of results (outputs, outcomes and impacts).The aim of RBM is to manage an intervention while tryingto ensure its relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact andother quality criteria.RBM provides a structured, logical model for identifyingexpected results and the inputs and activities needed toaccomplish them. 25 health centres built in the Nminunga region. 250 food aid kits distributed to 250 displaced households inMarch 2007.Although these statistics are impressive and show the ICRC’sefforts to assist a population, they focus on what was donerather than on what was achieved. They do not tell whatthe initial objectives were, what real changes were broughtabout, or the effect they had on people’s lives.RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT2 RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT 250 households in the Nminunga region can safely access ahealth post on foot in less than 40 minutes, thereby improvingthe health conditions of the region’s inhabitants. 2 50 displaced households have access to and consume at least2,400 Kcal/day without selling the economic assets that areessential to their return home.These are objectives that focus on the people’s situation.They are written with the hoped-for result in mind, and thusmake it possible to measure if that result has been achievedand a difference genuinely made for the people concerned.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 1311.6.2008 17:39:52

RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT14NoteResults-Based Management is common sense. Plan,manage and measure what you do with a clear focus onthe results you want to achieve.RBM logic1Assess What is the current situation?2ThinkWhat caused it? Who is involved?What are we going to achieve?3PlanHow are we going to do it? With whom? When?With what resources?4DoGet it done. How is it going?Do we need to adapt?5Review What went well/badly?What can we learn for next time?RBM introduces a structured management approach thatkeeps an organization focused on the expected resultsthroughout the process and not on the implementation ofactivities or on budget control. By being able to measureresults, a team will better understand the value of its work.RBM changes an organization’s culture. It was first conceivedfor the private sector. Its objective was to track financial results,such as profits, market share, etc.The term RBM is used to describe: A philosophy that focuses on achieving results, i.e. tangiblechanges A set of tools for programme/project management An institutional framework summarizing information on anorganization’s objectivesFor the purposes of this handbook, RBM refers to the first twoaspects.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 1411.6.2008 17:39:52

PROGRAMME/PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE RESULTS-BASED APPROACHKey messagePeople benefiting from humanitarian/socialinterventions depend on the quality of work they getfrom an organization that they cannot really choosethemselves. Those carrying out such interventionstherefore have an ethical responsibility to take intoaccount local capacities, culture and vulnerabilitiesand to manage resources efficiently and produceresults that have a beneficial effect on the population’ssituation.The humanitarian sector does not function like the privatesector.In the private – or commercial – sector, customers have achoice: they can choose between different providers ofa given service or goods; they have access to information;they can put pressure on providers to compete amongthemselves; they can, if they wish, decide to change suppliers.Consequently, the balance of power between customersand providers of goods and services is relatively even. Themarket is regulated.RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT2.2 Focus on people:an ethical responsibility15In the humanitarian sector, populations do not choose tobe affected by a shock/hazard and are not in a position tochoose the aid they receive or who they receive it from. Theycannot compare different offers or put pressure on operatorsto deliver what they need or want. There is an unevenpower balance between beneficiaries and humanitarianagencies, and no natural regulation. This is why focusing onperformance and results is an ethical responsibility for thehumanitarian sector.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 1511.6.2008 17:39:52

RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT16PRIVATE SECTORHUMANITARIAN SECTORInformationComparisonCompetitionLack of informationNo power to compareNo competitionPopulationCustomerSupplierAid actorsLack of regulationETHICAL ISSUEMarket regulation2.3 RBM terminology2.3.1 The results chainResources ts are the effects of an intervention. Such effects can beintended or unintended, positive or negative. There are threelevels of results: outputs, outcomes and impacts.OutputsOutputs are the products, capital goods and services thatare produced by an intervention, including changes arisingfrom the intervention that are relevant to the achievement ofoutcomes. Outputs are the first level of results. They are themost immediate effects of an activity, the results over whichyou have most control.Example: 100 farmers’ associations have increased their foodproduction by 25% in the forthcoming season.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 1611.6.2008 17:39:52

PROGRAMME/PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE RESULTS-BASED APPROACHImpactsImpacts are the primary and secondary long-term effectsof an intervention, be they positive or negative, direct orindirect, intended or unintended. Impacts are the third levelof results. They make up the “big picture” of the changes thatyou are working towards but that your activities alone maynot achieve. Impacts represent the underlying goal of yourwork and justify the intervention.Example: The whole population of X is able to meet itsessential needs in a sustainable manner.2.3.2 The RBM logicAs the results chain indicates, an intervention begins with aset of inputs and activities that result in outputs, outcomesand impacts.RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENTOutcomesOutcomes are the likely or achieved medium-term effectsof an intervention’s outputs. Outcomes are the second levelof results. You have less control over outcomes than overoutputs, but they are essential because they represent thetangible changes you are trying to bring about in your work.Example: 2,000 households are able to meet their foodneeds in terms of quality and quantity at all times.17 Inputs are used to carry out activities. Activities produce specific outputs. Outputs produce outcomes. Outcomes contribute to impacts.NoteRBM has implications at every level of an operation.At field level, the delegates and field officers will focuson “outputs”, while the coordinators will focus on“outcomes”.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 1711.6.2008 17:39:53

RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT182.4 RBM in the ICRC: Planning for ResultsAt the ICRC, RBM is in part translated into the Planning forResults process. The ICRC defines Planning for Results as“A corporate function that assesses context, target groups,problems/needs, risks, constraints and opportunities and setspriorities to ensure an appropriate level of coordination andalignment of actions and resources towards the achievementof expected results”.Result levelsObjective levelsImpact DesiredhumanitarianimpactOutcome General Objective(GO)Output(Per sub-targetpopulation)(Per sub-targetpopulation and perprogramme) Specific Objective (Several SOs per(SO)GO)2.5 Project Cycle ManagementProject Cycle Management (PCM) is the term given to theprocess of planning and managing programmes/projects.This process can be illustrated as a sequence of differentphases (the project cycle). PCM contributes to RBM byrationalizing the steps leading to a successful outcome.2.5.1 Defining projects and interventionsWhatever its level, an intervention has the same characteristics: It is a mechanism to solve “a problem”. It has a deadline, i.e. a timeframe and a completion date. It takes advantage of existing opportunities in the contextand of local capacities. It has a specific amount of resources.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 1811.6.2008 17:39:53

PROGRAMME/PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE RESULTS-BASED APPROACHFigure 1: An uationExternal supportICRC/NGOsThe whole process of assisting a population in passing fromthe existing situation (crisis) to a desired future situation canbe improved by using PCM/RBM.2.5.2 The project cycleThe way in which projects are planned and carried outfo ll ows a sequence known as the project cycle. The cyclestarts with an assessment that may lead to the design,implementation, review and evaluation of an intervention.RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT It benefits a specific group. It is carried out by a team/has a team leader.19Interventions are identified in the context of an agreedstrategy. The project cycle provides a structure in whichstakeholders are consulted and relevant data are gatheredso that informed decisions can be made at key stages in thelife of the project.The project cycle has five components (see Figure 2).1 It is initself a continuous process:1 The way a project cycle is represented can vary from one organization to another.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 1911.6.2008 17:39:53

Figure 2: The Project CycleReview SULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT20Implementation Assessment: The aim of an assessment is to understand asituation in order to identify the problem(s), the source ofthe problem(s) and the consequences of the problem(s). Thepurpose of an assessment is not to identify an interventionbut to find out whether or not an intervention is required,based on identified needs. Planning/design: The aim of this phase is to define thedesired future situation of the affected population and todetermine the objectives, strategies and activities neededto achieve it, taking into account local capacities, the ICRC’smandate and capacities, and the constraints and risks. At theend of the planning and design phase, a project proposal isproduced and ready to implement. Implementation: During this phase, activities are carriedout to achieve the desired results. Monitoring: This is a continuous process throughout thelife of the project, involving monitoring and follow-up of allthe activities. The resulting progress reports lead to decisionson whether or not an intervention needs to be changed oradapted as the situation evolves. Review and evaluation: At a given point in the intervention,an analysis of the situation is carried out, which results inintermediate/final reports that lead to recommendations forand adaptations to the intervention or to lessons learned forthe organization.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 2011.6.2008 17:39:53

PROGRAMME/PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE RESULTS-BASED APPROACHOrigins of PCMNoteMore than 50 percent of humanitarian/developmentinterventions fail, in the sense that they: do not achieve all of their objectives; do not deliver all of the promised products or services; sacrifice the predefined quality; are not completed in the given time schedule; use more resources than originally planned; or deliver the promised products and services, but needspersist.PCM arose out of an analysis of the effectiveness ofdevelopment aid undertaken by the OECD’s DevelopmentAssistance Committee during the late 1980s. Evaluationfindings indicated that a significant proportion ofdevelopment projects had performed poorly. In fact, thelong-term benefits for the beneficiaries were much fewerthan expected.The evaluations also found that the main causes of failurewere poor planning and preparation. They highlighted thefollowing problems in particular: Many projects were not relevant to the beneficiaries. Risks were insufficiently taken into account. Factors affecting the longer-term sustainability of projectbenefits were often ignored.RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT2.5.321To make things worse, lessons from the past were rarelyincorporated into new policy and practice, which sloweddown possible improvements.2.5.4 Aims of PCMProject Cycle Management or PCM is the term used todescribe the management of activities and decision-makingprocedures applied during the life cycle of a programme/PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 2111.6.2008 17:39:54

RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT22project including key tasks, roles and responsibilities, keydocuments, and decision options.PCM aims to maximize the benefits of programmes/projects for the beneficiaries by observing the followingessential precepts: Respect the operational strategy identification phase Increase the involvement of beneficiaries Prepare a coherent and comprehensive project design Take factors of sustainability into account Apply transparent procedures Create a framework for learningHowever, there are many barriers to effective PCM, including: Lack of time or not making time to plan Not knowing how to plan Difficulty in getting the right people together Difficulty in planning because of an uncertain future Wanting to do things immediately because needs are urgent,rather than think about themPCM brings together aid management principles andanalytical tools and techniques and applies them within thestructured decision-making process of the project cycle toensure that: Projects are relevant to the agreed strategy and to the realneeds of beneficiaries. Projects are feasible in that objectives can be realisticallyachieved within the constraints of the operating environmentand the capabilities of the implementing agencies. Projects are sustainable (with the exception of reliefinterventions).Managing an intervention basically means respecting thephases of PCM. This requires time and method. It is alsocommon sense. Lots of mistakes (and their impacts onPROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 2211.6.2008 17:39:54

PROGRAMME/PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE RESULTS-BASED APPROACHKey messagePCM provides an appropriate set of methods,tools and principles to operationalize RBM inhumanitarian interventions.Improving interventions using PCMProjects are developed toattract funds.Projects have to fit astandardized set of outputs.Projects are designed to solve problems.Projects develop local criteria and indicators to suit the localThe focus is on producingdocuments/reports.There is poor analysis of thesituation. Projects are activity driven. Results cannot be measured. Short-term vision. Complex multi-objectiveinterventions.Inconsistent documentation. situation and achieve excellence.The focus is on project designand making decisions.Through well-planned and indepth assessment, the situationis well understood.Projects are results driven.RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENTpopulations) could be avoided if people were more rigorousin the design and follow-up of interventions.23Each result has measurableindicators that have beenmonitored to give evidence ofthe results.Systemic vision.Focused interventions.Structured documentation based on the expected results.2.5.5 PCM principlesPCM is based on three main principles:1. D ecision-making criteria and procedures are defined ateach phase, including key information requirements andquality assessment criteria.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 2311.6.2008 17:39:54

RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT242. The phases in the cycle are progressive – each phase shouldbe completed for the next to be tackled with success(with the exception of monitoring, which is a continuousprocess).3. New programming and project identification draws on theresults of monitoring and evaluation as part of a structuredprocess of feedback and institutional learning.In practice, the duration and importance of each phase of thecycle will vary for different interventions, depending on theirscale and scope and on the specific operating modalitiesunder which they are set up. Nevertheless, ensuring thatadequate time and resources are committed to projectidentification and formulation is critical to supporting thedesign and effective implementation of relevant and feasibleprojects/interventions.PCM often uses the Logical Framework Approach (seeChapter 6), along with other tools, to support a number ofassessments/analyses, including of stakeholders, problems,objectives and strategies. It incorporates key qualityassessment criteria into each stage of the project cycleand requires the production of good-quality document(s)in each phase (with commonly understood concepts anddefinitions) to support well-informed decision-making.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 2411.6.2008 17:39:54


Part II: Process Boris Heger/ICRCPROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 2611.6.2008 17:40:01

27PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 27Part II: ProcessPART II: PROCESS11.6.2008 17:40:03


29The aim of the planning/design phase is to define the desiredfuture situation to be achieved by the intervention, takinginto account the problems and needs, local capacities, theICRC’s mandate and capacities, and the constraints and risks.There are four main stages of the planning/design phase:1. P roblem identification: This stage focuses on absorbingthe assessment recommendations and identifying moreprecisely the main problems. It is a transitional stepbetween the end of the assessment and the beginning ofthe design phase.2. I dentification of the operational strategy: This stageinvolves the selection of problems to be tackled, basedon ICRC doctrine (especially the Assistance Doctrine 49),the Ecosec Guidelines and Ecosec capacities, and theidentification of suitable strategies to solve them.3. I ntervention logic: This stage entails completing theintervention’s objectives, activities and assumptions andidentifying the set of indicators for monitoring.4. T owards implementation: Based on the interventionlogic, this stage focuses on the activities, resources, timeschedule and monitoring system of the proposedintervention and paves the way for its launch.Each stage is dealt with in a separate chapter below.THE PLANNING/DESIGN PHASE3. THE PLANNING/DESIGN PHASENoteThe design phase should be carried out as an iterativelearning process, rather than as a simple set of linear“steps”. For example, you may have done your problemidentification and then, during the identification of theoperational strategy, be required to revise the stake holder analysis.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 2911.6.2008 17:40:04


314.1 Aims of problem identificationThe problems and their interactions in a given situationmust be understood. Information from the assessmentis analysed and, if needed, completed using the relevantmethodology and tools (see Guidelines for assessment inemergencies).2It is useful to go through the analysis process in a particip atory way and in consultation with the assessment team,whenever possible.Problem identification involves:1. Stakeholder analysis, including preliminary institutionalcapacity assessment, gender analysis, and assessment ofthe needs of other vulnerable groups.2. Problem analysis – establishing a profile of the mainproblems, including cause-effect relationships.PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION4. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATIONThe quality of the analysis at this stage will depend on thequality and representativeness of the data collected duringthe assessment (if the information collected is wrong,incomplete or biased, the analysis will also be wrong,incomplete or biased).NoteProblem analysis requires the use of tools to summarize,compare, prioritize and organize data.2 ICRC/International Federation, Guidelines for assessment in emergencies, Geneva,March 2008.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 3111.6.2008 17:40:06

4.2 Stakeholder analysisStakeholder analysis is a technique used to identify andassess the importance of key people, groups of people orinstitutions that may significantly influence the success ofyour activity or project.3Key messagePROBLEM IDENTIFICATION32Importance of stakeholder analysis: To place the population within the overall context To identify organizations that are already workingin the area and their activities and to understandtheir position regarding the crisis and their interests,weaknesses and strengths To identify possible partners for the programme/project and discard othersThe following method of stakeholder analysis is adapted fromAlain Mourey.4Humanitarian action takes place in a diversity of contextsin terms of vulnerability to crises, social and functionaldimensions, and diverging interests and issues at stake. Bylooking at the various factors, it is possible to identify thedifferent stakeholders in a given environment.The general objective of stakeholder analysis is to ensurethat operations take place in the best possible conditions.This requires identifying the interests, activities and needsof stakeholders and taking them into account in dialogue3 Management Sciences for Health/United Nations Children’s Fund, The Guide toManaging for Quality, 1998, http://erc.msh.org/quality/ittools/itstkan.cfm.4 Alain Mourey, Manuel de nutrition pour l’intervention humanitaire, ICRC, Geneva,2004, which in turn was adapted from L’analyse des acteurs dans les actionsde développement et d’urgence, in: Compte-rendu du modèle test “UrgenceRéhabilitation Développement”, S. Ghinet (Institut Universitaire d’Etudes duDéveloppement) and F. Grunewald (ICRC), 1997.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 3211.6.2008 17:40:07

PROGRAMME/PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE RESULTS-BASED APPROACHOn a practical level, this involves: Identifying the affected people and groups in a specificenvironment Defining who does what, when, how, where and why Identifying individual interests Understanding power relations Defining the need for assistance Understanding operational strengths and opportunitiesStakeholders can be: Individuals Interest groups Local authorities ServicesPROBLEM IDENTIFICATIONwith them, so that mutually beneficial arrangements can bereached and potential obstacles to successful programme/project implementation can be avoided or reduced.33Stakeholders are identified according to a range of criteria: Their characteristics:- Social status (their position in the social structure)- I dentity (their image in a system of communication andexchange)-P rojects (their purpose or objective as determined bycircumstances and available resources)-P ower (their ability to influence other stakeholders) Their function and role within the social system underconsideration Their interests The issues at stake for them arising from specific events, andespecially from humanitarian actionA variety of tools is available to support stakeholder analysis.Whatever the tool used, the quality of information obtainedwill be significantly influenced by how the information isPROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 3311.6.2008 17:40:07

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION34collected. In this regard, the effective use of participatoryplanning methods and group facilitation tools can helpensure that the views and perspectives of different stake holder groups are adequately represented and understood.Stakeholder analysis is conducted for each of the abovelisted criteria, based on an analysis matrix. Stakeholdersdetermine the columns, and the issues determine the rows.Stakeholder analysis matrix – example of a General FoodDistribution (GFD)5IssuesPersonsdisplacedby warYes(they YesPreventGFDdeliveryNoAvoidnegativeGFD sideeffectsYes(if thisensuresGFDcontinuation)Inclusionin the GFDTradespeopleAuthorities GarrisonYes(to controlit)Yes(to showgoodwill)Yes(to sell it)(dependson timingand harvest)(dependson timingandharvest)No(if theycannot control it)Yes(if theycannot control it)YesYesYesYes(the GFDmay causea drop inthe price ofbasic commodities)Yes(if tradespeoplepay themenough)Yes(to avoidunrest andpressure)Yes(if tradespeoplepay themenough)(dependson howsuchside-effectsaffect theirrole andinfluence)The simplified matrix does not include such stakeholders asthe humanitarian agency involved in the GFD, donors, andthird parties that support the war effort. Stakeholders mustbe analysed in this example according to their relevance to5 Adapted from Alain Mourey, Manuel de nutrition pour l’intervention humanitaire,ICRC, Geneva, 2004, pp. 426–427.PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 3411.6.2008 17:40:07

PROGRAMME/PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE RESULTS-BASED APPROACH4.3 Problem analysis4.3.1 What is problem analysis?Problem analysis can be defined as dissecting and thorough ly studying one or more problems with the objective ofdeciding if and how to tackle them.The assumption behind problem analysis is that there isa clear cause (or set of causes) and a clear solution (or setof solutions). Indeed, it can be useful in many situationsto find out what caused

PROGRAMME-PROJECT MANAGEMENT.indd 16 11.6.2008 17:39:52. PROGRAMME/PROJECT MANAGEMENT: THE RESULTS-BASED APPROACH 17 resul T s-based M ana G e M en T Outcomes Outcomes are the likely or achieved medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs. Outcomes are