Transcription

åˆñ q Ò Ý ÏÚ oÚ Ö] 1Ò äÚ Þ‚  1òÞ]ZŠ §z]Ã%Zb!*Æã**ZX ë›]g @*l Ê]†jÂ] 1Ò Øfñ e ànÏÏvÚ( ! ózdk q-Z [Z Æ]ŸZ ‹Z6,ˆyWŒÛÆ ƒz gŠ 0*gÔ)D åçe ! äm‚Ûu] äÃÚ q ضŠÞ†μ !†‘ Þ ‚Ûu] çÛvÚ †nÚ ‚n‰ EÐO !3 ðŠt òŠ W Zz**X M7 ê h z Ìq-Z ðà »)**Ç6 y!*i kZX ŠH– y!*i ã**- )**Ç * ì @*YŒt xk!* ”Ãx ò AZÆ)**hÇ6gzZì ZÇ!*ÐkZ Xì [ÂŒ6,Qî*ÐOh! ðÃb§Å ˆyWŒÛÌ )**Ç * DXì Càyvì @*YHA % Ägt ‚Ã] "NÆ ÐŠ XZ Å: {?Y {z ì @*YH7t ‚}g ø )**Ç * W ìt Š Z ÅVz% ] "yZX ñƒk,’ k,’i§ZgzZ6,½»ÆnZgzZ‰‘ V ZgzZVâ â iZ] "tgzZ-ZÐn¾kZgzZ å–HäVß Zz ÝZ ñYc*qÎØ ì CYÅÒÃt ÄgÃæÃ] "ZyZX ]Ã%Zg ZDÙVzg ZDÙb!*Å ]Ã%Zb!*ÆyZgzZì @*Yc*Zz sg »] "yZ U¿VŒXì xÎñÐx **ÆTextual Criticism ì [W Š z Zg7Xì CYÅ7¡q-Zì @*YHA %Ð] "Z)**Ç *{Š ñì Œ6,] "yZ ) ) «X ì ŠHc*Š „ Vo) P nƪ œÃyZì @*Y HA %)**Ç * WÐ ] "XÐ X] "Æþ Ð { œ¶aX x % szwã**- } (,gzZ ‰‘yxgŠÆ { œ,ΊР{ œ¶a ! Â] "ˆÆ œ¶a1 D YÇg Õ Åwzh{zèYX D B (Scroll)wzh7Š ñ åÌðêë ZЃ nÆä A %)**Ç *À W ) )tÅ] "( ì Codices ÅÂkZ )XÑ äYñBoeÃgzZ‰ g (Z: toeÃëZ‰Æ ) )kZXì CY:SinaiticusoeÃc*( ì ³Z ãZ‡t) : oeÃ'( 1)HBgÝ ð ̀oeÃt5FˆÆ[zZ kzggzZ c*Š6,gîÆjà kzgg Ziä kZ 5Ð íZu { Õ{ ðƒµ6,#gîÃsg Z åHEX 1 pô *iñß', h y ä 6 ',:VaticanusoeÃc*BoeÃ'( 2)4G&5H "t yZ c*ÑB‚nÆy ág ÖZ KZ {zY âZ ÂH ìOZ Z# ä g 0***1AzgzZ å èE½Gz k, ÑÅ\7 "tX ˆƒ[x» äVZ {Z ÃÐkZ *Šdb§kZgzZX åï áÌ:AlexandrinusoeÃc*AoeÃ'( 3) LÆ G4Ó ã**Xì yß*iñß',[ZgzZ c*ŠjÃyàZ { áäCyril Lucar& çÔEé5kG-ÆÅF, "t:BezaeoeÃc*DoeÃ'( 4)Xì k, ÑÅ;gE- [ZgzZ c*ŠjÃ;gE- ‰äTheodore BezaeÝ q-ZgzZì » œ,v0*„ ) ) uzŠ Å] "‘J-Š XZ Å: {?YÐ { œ,â ì CYà ŠæñƒD A %)**Ç *Ð T '/

gzZ‰ñZ „ ó óVâZ0 { Ðzz Åppg¹xë !*gzZ Ðzz Åäƒ g Zl{Š c*i gzZ x % B; VZzg szwã**- LgX CYªë Z {Š c*inÆ zD zKM F,Å)**Ç6 Ô 13Ô(Family)ÄgzZÔ 1Ô(Family)ÄÐ yZX ‰) ) ŠÅ] " '/ } LgLgÆ] "ñƒ‘ÆIÐ œ¶aÉ 7Œ6,] "å [W[î%1ì Lg pô¼  Zƒz [WȽ»t X 6,½»‰ ñ Ð }Š7 á Zz äB Papyrusá Zzu Q6,i‚ÆB % )**AÇ *7ZgzZì ZƒÐZƒz[WÈÅ m !*s ÏZ »Vz Æ] ",Z Vß ‚80X70 /Xì @*Yƒù Ÿ ZƒzXì @*Y3gÃæñƒD )**Ç6 ‰ G : â i äZ6,ì CY ¿gÃæ ñƒ D A) ) ¶a Å] " '/ %ci ZÆ)**Ç6 Vâ !*i ã sgzZ8 HZÔëÍÔF̂g W W Z F,á ZzppgÌZ â U*gzZ‰ G ;gzZ ì Vâ !*izŠ Å gzZò Zg WÔHÑ W Z F,ÆXì s %Z ª!*Y f {g !*kZ7 c*å Š ñÀF,»)**Ç6 y!*i! ²IÐxsZX ñƒ ) ),v0*Å] " E '/äZ6, ]‚½Z {zÆ )**Ç6ì CYà Šæ ä ³Q»)**Ç6ÐX 3{! ð 4 EX G gŠ ? KZ yZgzŠÆV- œ /ä èEGÆ A %)**Ç * *Š ð *Š Å WÉ 7Š ñ î*ÐOh!Ô ðû)**Ç6ìC٪Р{¿Ñ!*{gÃè]Ã%Z Š¼ :W ] "tgzZì@*YH7Æ .Z . Æè%ÅVß Zzä A %Ð] "й{zì C 7-ÄÑ&ãŒÛŠ Z ÅX npgì [W g¼ { ‡!*-Z nÆä Aq % )**Ç *Ð ] "yZgzZì BYJXì xÎñÐx **ÆTextual Criticism : Ý szcq-Zƪ!* {g !*kZ"It may be thought in the case of the Bible there is no need for textual investigation; that God would not allowtextual errors to creep in to it during the years it has been handed down. But that is simply not true. God did notchoose to exercise such a miraculous providence over the books of the Bible".(The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Bible by Ronald E. Murphy,O. Cram. p37-38)ò :»\7 {g !*Æi Z ÆoÅQÆ)**Ç6ì CY Å oÅQÆ)**Ç6 g fÆTextual Criticism gzZ D Y ñ0*]Ã%Z ] "yZÆ)**Ç6:ŠH¹ kZ H g Y {g !*kZ ò : ä\7 Y 1943â XìŠ ñÌò :»\7 {g !*Æi Z ÆkZ"In the present day indeed this art, which is called Textual Criticism and which is used with great andpraiseworthy results in the editions of profane writings is also quite rightly employed in the case of the SacredBooks because of that very reverence which is due to the Divine Oracles. For its very purpose is to insure thatthe sacred text be restored, as perfectly as possible, be purified from the corruption due to the carelessness ofthe copyists and be freed , as for as may be done, from glosses and omissions, for the interchange andrepetitions of words and from all other kinds of mistakes, which are wont to make their way gradually in towritings handed down through many Centuries ."(Y â1943 Divino Afflante Spirtu yZ â»Vc*Š Z m,ZgzZV p èSŠ Zg Z ÔV Åk,’Ô]Ã%Zb!*ÔªÅ] "Pius XII\7)CYð0*Ì Vc*Š Z m,ZgzZ V p èSŠ Zg ZÉ /»gzZ V Åk,’gzZ ]Ã%Zb!*sÜ: ] "yZ ìgÃåO Ì%Zt!o-PGª]c*W y WÅ[!* y WÆgZ Ų%wVgÔq-Z ÅkZX äY6,yÓWÆ ] Š ãCÅá {Š ñX [email protected]*8 ]c*W 16[!*²%gzZ ŠHH †ŸZzp’ )**Ç6 nÆä gŠÃ{o Š ãC" kZ nkZ åM7Ð]Zk,’*Š f »kZèa1ì ˆ¿g6,-o!Interpreters Bibleª!*‚gÔÅM%Z {g !*kZX IÅZ Zi Œ6, fÆäYñVZ6,yÓWÆ PG] ]c*Wt y WÆ

Ð g ⃠(, TÔ :ì –Ôì ˆÅÒÃÅäXÃZ Øð Šg"One of the oldest attempts to supplement and finish Mark is the so called "longer endingo"(Vss.9-20). This isnot found in the best MSS (B SK sys,etc.) and dates probably from the second century; it was compiled out ofthe data of the other Gospels, and even of Acts,and may have been originally independent list of resurrectionappearances.The author was probably, as Burkitt and Conybere held, the second century presbyter Aristion orAriston. It is attributed to him in an Armenian MS written in 989."(The Interpreters Bible . New york Abingdon. Cokesbury Press Neshvill Parthenon Press Nashville.U.S.A)y*»kZ ì ˆÅÒÃÅ% Z e {Š6,tÔ‰7 [ÂÝZ [email protected]*9]c*W y WŲ% ˆÆä tà kZ !ZjkZH1Ð ã**Z uzŠ²%ÝZt H ìt ÂwZΠN Y à Ìt'!*VâzŠt nÁ!*Xì –ä AristonuÆ œ uzŠ c*ì ŠñO ňyWŒÛnZ ‹Z »Y Z íZÃr# ‹z gŠ 0*HgzZì CY {g Hwò AZ Å[ÂkZQÂì /Z gzZ ?7c*ì p’gzZ†ŸZ 6,)**Ç6?7 c*å’ e**Ì„ZÍ ãzg0 Z Ų%ŠpÉ 'ƒ7" U*¹ÒZ ³Æ„ZÍÅ ] "sÜ]c*W y WŲ% ìgÃæ Ì%Zt8VŒX :ì ŠHH b§kZ ÀF,zŠg Q »e W, WÅ[!* y WkZ èYì X ó ó‰Cg e {zèY ¹:¼ÐËäVrZgzZ :ì @*YH b§kZÀF, m,ôZ"And they said nothing to anyone,for they were afraid.": tp ÖZ y WÆe W, W ã**-ÝZX 7„ gŠ b§ g7ÀF,tˆ ¶ˆðC Åäg ezz ðà ²%ÝZ ìCÙªs X ó‰Cg eèY L : Ô èó Y‰Cg e ÊìÀF,» kZ ( g Ç Õ1 ¶Z )X c*Š †ŸZÐs§KZÆ sv.ÃkZ äVrZgzZ ðW7IÃVß ZzäW it was compiled out of the data of 17Âz »²%ÝZ ]c*W y WŲ%p /Z ì ŠHHÌòúŠt !ZjÑ!*{gÃèEE!{4 3 ÆkZèYì ÑZz ä à g ZÈ c*HH .Zzt Ð ã**Z uzŠ Ô other gospelsèEGŠ Å Interpreters BibleòúŠt Xì ŠgZ Å ‡ßgzZX 7„ f ðûäY ñVZ6,yÓWÆ[] yZ [ s§ÅV- g Zj zŠÐ ã**Z Y b§hZt U* „ZÍÅ ] "R1 ì Š ñ fCÙ„ äInterpreters Bible ŠpX å7 f ðûäY6,yÓ W ‡ßÝZ ì C "-8E{ -8E{ -ZgzZ Q»çE,Gáq-ZX ñŠU/U QzŠÆª!* Ð ô KZ6, CÙÅ ‡ß gz çE,GáX Q Revised Standard q: t p ÖZ y WÆgZ"he was parted from them,and carried up in to heaven,and they worshipped him and returned toJeruselem."à Ùzk,Ð Ùp (,Æ { ÃkZ {zgzZ ŠHc*VZ6,yÓ WgzZ ŠHƒ Z].Ð yZ Zƒ (Z  Õì @*YH b§kZ W Z F,zŠg Z ÀF,»kZDQN!QMVNP! ÎçÖEX ó ó‰ ß:ìÀF,b§kZ gzRevised Standard1"he parted from them and they returned to Jeruselem with great joy.":ì b§kZÀF,»kZ New English Bible.". he parted from them and they returned to Jeruselem with great joy."-o!:gzZ å f » äY6,yÓWÆ PG] : ‡ßÝZ c*ÍX ó ó‰ ßÃÙzk,Ð Ùp (,{zgzZ HŠƒ Z].Ð yZ {z Êǃ V- ÀF,c*ÍX솟Z »ˆtX »ä { ÃyZÆV- g Zjo!-PG uzŠì f » äY6,yÓ WÆ ] X†ŸZ ¹ÒZ » ]c*W y WŲ% It »g óy*Æ Interpreters Bible :Xì ß%ÜÔì FF6,ã**Z

]ZŠ §z]Ã%Z :i ZZ{Š ñ Æ)**Ç6‡ßgzZ äX D WÃ]Ã%Z gzZ Š § Ì yZ ÂBŠ ci Z ·, *Š {Š ñÆ)**Ç6 hgÃ] "Ñ!*gÃèo!-PGVâzŠyZÃsÐ]!*kZ1X å: g ðÄ Zg { Z',»yZЊ- èÑq ‰ ñŠÄcÅŠ- ó** Æ ] ã**ZVâzŠ)** ƇßgzZ x **40J-Š- Ð x ;Z',Z )** ÆäX Ì Š Z ÅVñ**gzZì s %Z Ì ”ÅVñ** Vñ** ?ì eg »s %Z kZ V1ÂzŠ Å Z}.q-Z HX 54 o!-PG ÅŠ î ZŠ [ÑZz äW ì @*YHt6,gîx Š·wìtgzZ ïŠg Z ŒÛŠ ÑzZ ÅðŠ î ZŠ ] à ] ó** VâzŠ ‡ßgzZ ä U*Ð ÅŠ î ZŠ7Z äVÁâgZ nkZ „ X ǃÐäW ¶Ôc Š·]!*t1X ñŠó** ÆŠ- nÆä "] {z 7 åg ZÜZ »‰²Ô ǃРÅìP Ñ] dWÆðŠ î ZŠ] {z ë ‰X ǃРÅdW¾ÆŠ î ZŠ ] [ÑZzo!-GPWÆŠ î ZŠdgZŒÛ ÅyÑ] à ] ää X c*Š ib§¾Xt ILZ LZ äVÁâgZ ¶ ŠX ǃРŠ ÑzZ Å@**XÐ Å@"**ä‡ßgzZì c*Š}ŠÇ6Šp »yZ D Îx Z²Z »Y Z íZv!*fÍ6,ˆyWŒÛ# ‹z gŠ 0*r?ì wìH {g !*ÆÃÅ)**'/'/'/'o!-PG-ZÅ]Ã%ZÆnkZƒ{Æ - ] e gñâ È Z CZ ä ] 9s# Ÿ1 ã**Z Ų%Ô äX ¶ Š wVgzZ qÆ - ì @*ƒx š ŸzÐ3 [!*gZ Å - 1X ( 14 e W 1[!*²%X [email protected]*12e W 4 [!*äBŠ )X HˆÆ äY ñZzñ -o!X å[ƒqzÑ Ÿ»V gzZ e gñâ y Z PG] I ²ÐäYñZzñX ?Ð,Š g Z ŒÛx » Z}.Ãã**ZVÐyZ Š z!*Æs %Z ãZzkZ r# ‹z gŠ 0*H'/'/'/'{zèYƒ ðƒ" U* Ñ Mh 77 ðr Z ðÃňyWŒÛ{zp D Îx Z²Z »äƒY Z íZ6,ˆyWŒÛ# ‹z gŠ 0*r:ì Hkß7 7çnÓßn ãiX1†ê ìß6,gî ËYÅ7V r Z‰Ð)**Ç61Xì x » Z}.ØZÝ Ð ?ëçOX ÇñWáB‚ÆÏZÐazÆqÁ ‰ Î ÌÃyZ Z}.b§ÏZ ÂVZ YgzZ ŠH%qÁ ì t Z# yÓ WŠp0 zZ}.èYXг(,: /Ù C/ÙÐ VîƒñÎ Ð g ¹!*C-äWÆ0J zZ}.gzZ {0 i ë ë . Æ x Æ0 zZ}.B‚ÆyZ ÐVƒ ¹!*{0 i ëQÐÙZ Y ññ [ {z  gzZX ÇñWF,ZB‚Æ ì3,ÆZ}.gzZ i ZzWÅ Û[HgzZg —ÐG ÐODMT iMO km?]P h e 7çnÓß Šãi(MEX ó óz c*Š ö hÃ}uzŠq-Z ÐVÂ!*yZ ?:X , wLZ » 0 zZ}.N Zƒ @*ÐN YñVZ6,Vߊ !*ã**Z Vzg e . Æ{o\èY @* Šg Zz nZ ‹Z6,)**Ç6  ѻ kZ ÌA Cƒ ÅÐ s§KZ ðrt ä kß7 /Zo!-PGì ;gÄg6,x Æ ] . Æ15 Ôe WŠ ãCÅ ðr kZ kß7ÂVŒ 1X ÞZ Ä 6,gîV7 oèÆVÍß}uzŠgzZ kß7 gzZo!-o!-PGäçO Œ6,ðrkZ Š ñ]ZL,ZÆ PG] Ì ã**ZgzZXÆ kZ Tì qŠ ág Zt» ] 24 [!*o!o!-PG-PG: D â Û ] Xì f » ãU*æWÅ ] Ð䃻ð h ' ÅVâ ÓWgzZÐ, /Ð yÓW}g *gzZ Ç}Š: Ýzg KZ0 egzZ ÇñYƒq-g @* gÎˆÆ ÅV⊠yZ Ug gzZ yÓ WB‚Æw gzZ]gŠ (,ÃxŠ W0ZgzZ ÏÖf CY ƒ Å}i‰ÜzkZgzZ Ç}Š ð3Š6,yÓWy¶K»xŠ W0Z‰ÜzkZgzZ ÏN Y}g )kS ÆyÓ W Ð s§Vzg eÃVzh /,'ÆkZ {zgzZ ÇÇÃV ÛLZB‚Æi ZzW (,Åì3,{zgzZ ÏBŠ D W6,Vߊ !*ÆXÐ, J-}g )k QÐþ yZ ?Zƒ# b§ÏZX ì q-Š 4,ò /ƒ fe yY ? ä3 ígzZ Cƒx3,wZ e ÅkZ 4 X³šq-ZÐ # gŠÆîZ [Z4 XM ì6,{ i ZzgŠÉ qN YTÞ}igzZ yÓ WX σ:x Ó /Ù tBƒ: '!*C tJƒ-Z# VƒH sÐ ?èG-Š 4,{z ßyYÂdŠÃVÂ!*DOQ iNU VNP ojÚEX ó óϽ: /Ù'!*C pÐo!-PG: D â Û ] 16[!*ä4 XM Ç}Š! VƒH sÐ?èG . ÆVñ»ÆkZÃq-ZCÙ‰Üzk QX ÇñWB‚ÆV ÛLZ w Æ\!*LZxŠ W0Z

o³³jÚEX óÐó ‘:/ Ù{'C »]ñÐBNŠ: ñƒD W „ አ!*ÅkZÃxŠ W0ZJ-Z# ,Z‰Ð yZ } 9VŒ DNT!NS VMR-o!: ë PG] ²%ÇñWB‚ÆV Ûu 0* w Æ\!*LZ Z# ÌxŠ W0Z ÇñâÑÐ VÂ!* gzZÐí x g » ægzZ g » **i kZ ðà 4 MÆ]gŠÃ„ አ!*Å Z}.J-Z# ,Z ‰Ð yZ } 9VŒ VƒH sÐ ?èG ¹Ð yZ äkZgzZX ÇñâÑÐ kZ ÂDOT!OS VT ‹Î†ÚEX óÐó ‘: {' »]ñBNŠ: Zƒc*WB‚EEo!-PG!{34 Ð x !ZÆgzŠ ãU*æW Å\W B ðrt Å ] èEG Æ)**Ç6 ìCÙªs Ð ]Y!ZjÑ!*{gÃèX ðƒ7 g7ðrtŠ z!*ÆäYg /w‚g ZDÙzŠ[ZgzZX Zƒ7(Z1ÏñYƒk, g¼ 5?ìg ZÜZ6,äƒÞZÄ gzZ kl[ÂÆ)**Ç6gzZ äƒY Z íZv!*fÍƈyWŒÛÌ[ZÃr# ‹z gŠ 0*H'/'/'/'o!-PG,’ðÃÐ ]Zk,’Å)**Ç6 ì Cà)œ¹]!*tÃäƒ[ÂRÆ)**Ç6ËÆ\W: Ôì ðƒèÅ ] :kX Å g Zj!Z Å ‡ßgzZ²%Ô7"Å g ZjË{ z ì „szc]!*tÂ0ÆzŠÐ ‹g Zã**Zä1X 7k,’ÅV- g Zj6,gîî*ÐOh ã**EE! U*"ßÐ ïKZ ÅV ð 3O{ \[Z]!*t1X "Å g Zj - gzZ g Zjä{z ì @*Y Hwìt ‰Üz ‰0Æã**Z Å - gzZEE!{34 èEG \[Z Zƒ f 6gzZ "ÅV- g ZjVâzŠt 7Š ñòúŠt Ì èSg áZ } V1ÂVâzŠ yZŠp ìg Š c*gzZX ì ƒ58- gzZ g Zjäã**ZVâzŠt D g Z ŒÛZxk!*X 7"Å g Zj éOEHE&'54G14G Z é¹GX :ì – Y 1975â ci,c*beK̈Z"Although there is a Matthew named among the various lists of Jesus disciples, more telling is the fact that thename of Levi, the tax collector who is Mark became a follower of Jesus, in Matthew is changes to Matthew.Itwould appear from this that Matthew was claiming apostolic authority for his Gospel through this device but thatthe writer of Matthew is probably anonymous."D Biblical Literature ÀËÖ†m‡ 6nãÓm EX :ì –0ÆgZ Å - gzZ"Irenaeus calls John the beloved disciple, who wrote the Gospel in Ephesus. Papias mentions John the son ofZebedee, the disciple, as well as another John, the presbyter, who might have been at Ephesus. From internalevidence the Gospel was written by a beloved disciple whose name is unknown. Because both external andinternal evidence are doubtful, a working hypothesis is that John and the Johannine letters were written andedited somewhere in the East(perhapes Ephesus) as the product of a "school," or Johannine circle, at the end of,iBŠ ).the firest century ". (Biblical LiteratureÂk3O{!ÆgZ ÅäkZ ?7c* g ZjäýE:ì – The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible {g !*"The Question of authorship is no easy problem. There is a strong and consistent tradition in the early churchthat Matthew was the author. This tradition is confirmed: (1) by the conclusive evidence, furnished by thecontents, that the writer of this Gospel was a Jewish Christian emancipated from Judaism; (2) by theimprobability that so important a book would have been attributed to so obscure an apostle without goodreason;(3) by the likelihood that a publican would keep records; by the modest way in which the writer speaksof the feast given by Matthew to Jesus". (ch.9:10 of Luke 5:29)."On the other hand, many scholars feel that internal evidence makes it difficult to accept this tradition of theEarly Church. Matthew reproduces about 90 percent of the subject matter of Mark in language very largleyidentical with that of Mark. Now it is highly improbable that an apostle would have used as a major source thework of one who in all likelihood had not been an eyewitness of the ministry of Jesus. Papias, bishop ofHierapdis in Phrygia, writing C. A. D. 140, may provide a key to this problem. Eusebius (H. E. iii. 39, 16) quoteshim as saying,"Matthew collected the logia(sayings, or oracles) in the Hebrew language, and each one

interpreted them as he was able. This brief sentence is probably to be interpreted as follows. The ApostleMatthew (C.A.D 50) wrote down Jesus, saying in Aramaic. These sayings, with a brief frame of historicalnarrative were translated into Greek and thus constituted the document that scholars designate by the symbol(for German Quelle, source). This document and material from Mark and other sources were woven into what isnow our First Gospel. By this hypothesis, The name Matthew, originally attached is the Aramaic source of Q,was transferred to the whole work which had incorporated it." (The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible by JohnD. Davis, Phd., D,LL.D., late professor of OldTestament Literature, Princeton Theological Seminary Revised andRewritten by Henry Snyder Gehman, Phd., S.T.D Professor of Old Testament Literature and chairman of theDepartment of Biblical Literature Princeton theological Seminary and Lecturer in Semitic languages, PrincetonUniversity London and New York. Collins Clear Type Press. Glasgow-Toronto-Sydney and Auckland.)X :ì – [ÂÏZ {g !*ÆgZ Å -"Like the other Gospels the Fourth does not mention the writer's name but both internal and externalconsiderations lend some support to the traditional belief that the work was written by the Apostle John. . .Itmust be stated, however, that many scholars today do not feel the cogency of the above reasoning. They believethat the author of the Fourth Gospel was distinct from John the apostle, who was the witness to whosetestimony the author and his followers appeal (John 19:33;21:24) The Evangelist (The author Proper) was,according to these Scholars a disciple and follower of John the son of Zabedee (the apostle) and wrote from thereminiscences and the teaching of his master, an eyewitness. His name is either unknown to us or, more likely,was John the presbyter or Elder(c

Ð g⃠(, TÔ :ì–ÔìˆÅÒÃÅäXÃZ Øð Šg "One of the oldest attempts to supplement and finish Mark is the so called "longer endingo"(Vss.9-20).