EDITOR'S NOTEI am glad to announce the release of the 2019 Tempe Times. After muchhard work and dedication from the students oflOPVDI the magazine isnow up and rolling! This year I have had the privilege to edit and watch themagazine evolve from simple ideas, concepts and thoughts of my peers tothe texts you see before you. Mr Dias, Mr Zlotkowski and myself. have seenthe growth of this magazine and we invite you to read our articles. Our2019 class oflOPVDI has done exceptionally well and will without doubtmeet your expectations with enthralling articles that will encompass yourattention for their durations. Ranging from Anime, fashion, new sports toexplore and the hidden gems of Sydney, this year Tempe times really doeshave it all. We hope to see you all again in December!Gabriele TancaCover Photo: Andy Lam
3 Billion Success or Flop?Kimi Sipayung and Caelen NoejirwanOn 13 December 2012, the government made a commitment to build a new light railstarting from Circular Quay ending at Randwick and Kingsford. Construction started inOctober 2015 with the initial plan of 1.6 Billion for the project ready to be used, howeverthat number has now significantly increased to a staggering 3 billion dollars causingmany public viewers to ponder on the question, was it worth it?For those who may ask what is alight rail, a light rail is a form of publictransport that allows passengers totravel about in a smooth, comfortableand quiet way. The transport is asystem of railways usually poweredby overhead electrical wires and hasaround a medium-capacity whencompared to other modes oftransport such as cars with asmall-capacity and buses with alarge-capacity.Railway during construction inHaymarket(Photo: Kimi Sipayung)
With the addition of the new light rail, this doesn’t mean it's the only one of its kind. Anexisting Inner City Light Rail station exists which allows passengers to travel betweenDulwich Hill and Central. The light rail systems works just like any other public transport inwhich you need an opal card to tap on and off once the journey has been completed. Thetimetable of the light rail is very frequent often arriving at least once every 15 minutesThe new light rail is a 12km route that’ll feature 19 stops. The railway extends fromCircular Quay along George Street to Central Station through Surry Hills to Moore Parkand then to Kensington and Kingsford via Anzac Parade and Randwick via Alison Roadand High Street.Key features:-High frequency ‘turn up and go’ light rail services operating up to every fourminutes-Reliable and high-capacity services-Additional special event services between Central and the Moore Park and RoyalRandwick stopsLight Rail stopunderconstruction inRandwick(Photo: CaelenNoesjirwan)
As with most ideas, there are both pros and cons but the ideas are only executed if thepros outweigh the cons. In the case of the light rail, the council have decided thebenefits outweigh the costs but not everyone has the same peace of mind. That part isfor you to decide but these facts will help you decide. Map of new light railThe ‘Pros’ Source: City of Sydney Additional public transport system androute. The new light rail system willroute from Darling Harbour to Randwickand Kingsford in a 19 stop 12km tripeach way Frequently occuring. The light rail givesan alternative for most commuters ontheir travels to and from the city. Theroute is destined to run every 10minutes The light rail is meant to be quiet andaesthetically pleasing to make thegeneral public happyThe ‘Cons’ Bus routes are being replaced andre-routed. The construction of the newlight rail will cause bus routes to stopbeing used. Buses including the 373,395, 376, 396, M10 and M50 are beingreplaced by the light rail and routessuch as the 397 are being re-routed tosuit the light rail. This means thatcommuters will have to change plans going to and from work If a light rail breaks down on the track, all light rails are forced to stop becausethere is only one track in each direction Many trees have been cut down in the construction of the light rail. The spaceneeded to place the light rail means that many trees have been cut down alongwith buildings getting demolished. This is causing a grievance in the localcommunities as they want to keep the old buildings and the trees reasonablybecause of the values (such as cultural) of those buildings and trees
We asked a few people’s opinions about the new light rail. Most people said that theythought it was a great idea but some said otherwise.When asked their opinions of it, Connor Fourfouris, student of Tempe High School andcommon user of public transport stated that the light rail would be “sick”.On the contrary, Sam Chen, another student of Tempe High School and frequent userof public transport says the lightrail “might not be very good atall”. However he also followedup with a separate question,intriguingly asking “Would thetime they spent on the light railbe worth it in the end?” Aquestion we cannot answer untilthe light rail opens but you candecipher an opinion about itbased on the pros and cons.Gabriele Tanca also hadcommented on the light rail. “Ithink it would be good, but itmay have some failures.”Evidently you can see, peoplehave conflicting opinions on thelight rail and if it is worth all thetime and money.Andy Lam, another student whooften visits Circular Quaybelieves that the light rail willchange Circular Quay byreplacing the busy roads full ofbuses and cars into a niceavenue to be enjoyed by the public. Light Rail depot in Randwick(Photo: Caelen Noesjirwan)Overall the new light rail raises many intriguing questions that regard the future ofAustralia’s travel and local communities. Many people have different mixed feelingsabout the new light rail and with its pros and cons it is hard to pick a side. Whether ornot this project is going to be a flop or a wide phenomenal success is to be decided inthe upcoming near future. However, until early next year we will never know. We willjust have to wait.
Are AirpodsWorth ? ?Connor FourfourisAirpods are a pair of expensivewireless earphones that were madeby Apple as an improved version ofwired earphones. Airpods werereleased on December 13th in 2016and due to the success of airpodssales, Apple released a secondversion of airpods with a significantlyincreased battery life.In a way, they have become a newcraze across the globe with manypeople having a desire to get a pair.They were so big at one stage thattech stores were constantly out ofstock as they are being bought byconsumers instantly. However,these airpods are extremelyexpensive compared to any otherearphones coming in at a whoppingprice of 240.
But are the features included in airpods really that better than normal earphones? Arethey better enough to differ the price and cost at least 5 times more? Well let’s look intohow this small product powered by nanotechnology sizes up compared to normalearphones.Now you’re probably asking yourself, ‘What are the features that airpods have to makeits price so extravagant?’ Well these wireless earphones have many great featuresnormal earphones don't have. These features include you being able to use your phonewithout actually touching it due to the nanotechnology powering the airpods allowingyou to do so. Once you connect your airpods to bluetooth on your phone, you can listento music and call people as you can do with normal earphones but in a different way. Ifsomeone were to call you, instead of having to pull out your phone to accept or declinethe call you could just tap your airpods to accept the call or tap them twice to decline thecall. When your listening to music you can tap on the side of your airpods to pause thesong or to resume it. If you want to skip a song or ad to a video you’re watching, all youhave to do is swipe right on your airpods or you can swipe left to go back. If you takeone out, the nanotechnology will register that you only have one in your ear and will playthe sound louder in the airpod in use. There are also no limitations when listening musicwith your friends. You can be standing 20 metres away from each other and listen tothe same song instead of being stuck next to each other with the wires on theearphones pulling you together.In comparison to normal earphones, youcan’t do any of these things by just simplytapping the side of your earphones. Youhave to pull out your phone to answer ordecline calls, pause or resume your musicthat you were listening to or videos you werewatching, skip songs that you don’t want tolisten to or ads disrupting your video. As wellas having to be squashed right next to yourfriend to listen to music or watch the samevideo together as I mentioned before. Youmay ask now, ‘Why don’t earphones havethe same features as airpods?’. Well this isbecause they don’t have the samenanotechnology which is built in to airpodswhich means earphones can only work oncethey are wired to a device.
The nanotechnology allows bluetooth to connect to your phone and other devices. Oncethey are connected, airpods are synced in to your phone which enables you to controlthe sound features on your phone with your airpods instead of having to touch or useyour phone. Pretty cool right! Lets ask some consumers now who have bought a pair ofairpods themselves to see if the high price was really worth the value.‘Best earphones I have ever used. Great quality sound. Worth every penny. 10/10’- Dean Chronis, age 16‘A great investment I’ve made all year and it doesn’t get tangled. 10/10’- Sharon Djong, age 15‘Fits my ears well, one of the best wireless earphones on the market. Definitely worth 240. 11/10’- Clayton Yau, age 15‘The best 240 I’ve spent. Being true wireless, I don’t have to worry about yankingwires. 10/10’- Lena Wang, age 15‘ Honestly so overrated and overpriced. I should have spent the money on FIFA points.So trash. They broke within a day of usage and were just uncomfortable to wear. Alsomy mom grounded me” 2/10- Gabriele Tanca, age 15‘When I first bought the airpods, they seemed so expensive, however when I purchasedit and started using it I know I was never going to go back to using wired. The onlydownside is that they dent really easily. 9.9/10’- Serena Chin, age 15Nearly all the consumers love their airpods, it seems and think they are worth theextravagant price. They all love their bluetooth features and the fact they aren’t wirelesswhich they believe makes them very practical. Some were even sceptical of spending alarge amount of money on such a small product, however their views drasticallychanged when they bought them as they loved airpods and said it was their bestinvestment ever.
A Happy Air-podder Indeed!Photo: Connor Fourfouris
Too FastFashion!Clayton Yau & Andy LamHey " fashionistas ", didyou know that the fur coatyou are wearing to keepyou warm right now was made from up to 24 foxes ,this was proved by acampaign named R espectfor AnimalsFashion shoppers spent about 5.7billion on Christmas partyclothing this year – but 8 million ofthose sparkly items will be on theirway to landfill after just one wear,according to ‘The Guardian’. Fastfashion has ushered throwawayculture into the clothing business,with items so cheap they havebecome single-use purchases.Statistics has shown that throwawaygarments contribute more to climatechange than air and sea travel. Frommy personal standpoint, I would wantto make a change though it maydiffer from the current trend, I careabout the world I am living in.Graphic by: Andy
We must reduce or even ceaseproduction of these clothing whichrequires unsustainable materials thatmay harm our society. The world isusing up it's natural resources by everysecond. For example, we burn fossilfuel to create energy and electricity butwe had found an alternative way byusing renewable energy which isalmost harmless to our environment.Why can't we just use recycled itemsas our clothing and reduce thedemand of new fashion releasingevery month?This brings in the term ‘SustainableFashion’, sustainable fashion is amovement and process of fosteringchange to fashion products and thefashion system towards greaterecological integrity and social justice.Sustainable fashion concerns morethan addressing fashion textiles orproducts. It comprises addressing thewhole system of fashion.What can we do?1. Buy clothes made locally byethical labels - W hy should wedo that though? Well we allknow that large transnationalclothing company would onlywant to make money, which iswhy they need to cut costs onthe fabrics and wages for theemployees. This leads to cheapuse of material and poor qualityof clothing. On the other handlocal designers tend to think ofmaking more durable andrecycled clothing in which toattract customers hopingfor them to purchase at theirstore again.2. Avoid fabrics made usingpetroleum and chemicals Where possible, skippetroleum-based syntheticssuch as polyester and nylon,
which are actually plastics thattake forever to break down oncetossed. Each time such fabricsare washed, they shedthousands of micro fibres thatend up polluting rivers andoceans. When purchasing apiece of clothing, check thematerial used tag and look forany of the following fabrics:organic cotton, bamboo linen,hemp, linen, silk and wool andlyocell.3. Extend clothing lifespan bymending - Once clothingbecomes tired and hole-ridden,don’t rush straight to the bin, trymending instead. Call a localclothing repairer or, better yet,join the #visiblemendingmovement, which encouragesentirely obvious and colourfulhand-sewn repairs.Why is ethical,sustainable fashionimportant?No matter what you think theworld’s biggest issues are, youare unlikely to think of fashionas either a problem or asolution. Yet ethical, sustainableclothing can actually helpaddress many of these issues inways you may not expect. Evenbetter, clothing is somethingthat everyone needs and uses,making it an extremelyaccessible avenue for theaverage person to affectchange.We spend over 350 billionshopping every day. That’smore money than multiplecountries giving to charity overthe course of a year! Imagine allthe ways we could change theworld if we spent more of thatmoney shopping for goods andservices that give back. As anethical, sustainable clothingcompany, we’re here to tell youhow buying ethical clothingonline or in stores can make apositive impact on the worldaround us.
What does ethical fashion mean to ourenvironment?Simply put, ethical fashion isfashion made ethically?This canencompass a whole host of businessand productionpractices aimed at treating your workers fairly andminimizingyour impact on the environment. In short, ethical fashionmeans your clothing is eco-friendly and people-friendly.Lastly everyone, we have to think globallyand act locally when we shop!
Homemade Vs StoreBoughtSerena Chin and Sharon DjongAre home cooked foods really worth it?Photograph: Sharon Djong
What foods do you eat most? Homemadeor store bought, both options having variousamounts of pros and cons.With the increase of popularity in homecooking shows, this has caused manyviewers to try and create food from homewithout the extra preservatives and sparknew interest in cooking.Groups of people such as hipsters andmillennials stray away from foods containingpreservatives and aim for free ranged, moreethical and less processed foods. We will beshowing you some homemade alternativesfor some desserts and discussing the question we’ve all been asking, which is better?
Many people commonly buy store bought foods due tomany reasons including the convenience and taste. Manyparents nowadays commonly buy takeout and store boughtfoods as it is quick and easy and no preparation isrequired.This may be the fact that parents spend many hours at fulltime jobs and come back tired.Luckily for us our community has designed a way to buyready to go food, which tastes exactly like home cooked.However even though store bought food may seem like aphenomenal invention that could change our everyday lives,there are many downsides of store bought foods that arenot very discussed about.Some major health concerns that may arise from regularly eating store bought foodinclude, the lack of nutrients home cooked food contains. Many add ins andpreservatives are combined into store bought foodto make it last longer, look better or taste better.Store bought food could also put you at a risk ofspiking your blood sugar levels. This is becauseour bodies overcompensate and produce moreinsulin than usual to keep blood sugar levels at ahealthy rangeThere is also a possibility that your body will storethe excess blood, sugar and calories, leading toweight gain.
However there is an alternative, homecooking.Homecooks are great as they get to increase their cooking skills and find it as a hobby.When buying normal ingredients, its total price becomes cheaper and you can choosewhat goes into your food.Home cooked foods contain less chemicals as you are conscious of what food choicesand produce you are making and putting into your meal.You can even alter recipes to suit your needs, such as adding more sugar or replacing aningredient for an alternative, like oil for butter.Though creating food at home can increase yourcooking abilities and give you more customisation,many have busy lifestyles which lead to not havingenough rest time.Having to come home from a hard day of workand having to prepare and cook is too tedious.While also having to prepare and cook, you willneed to find recipes you like. When you run out ofingredients, you will have to shop which thentakes up more of your free time.Here are some homemade recipes of popularstore bought desserts you can try that we havetested out for you, to determine and test to find thereal answer of whether home cooked or storebought foods are better.
bubble tea (chatime)recipe: 1 cup tapioca pearls (found in the dry goods section in Asian groceries)4 cups freshly brewed strong black tea1 tablespoon sugarIce cubes, for shaking1/2 cup whole milkSoak the tapioca pearls according to the package instructions. Once fully reconstitutedand softened, drain.While the tea is still hot or warm, add sugar and stir to dissolve completely. Let cool andthen refrigerate until completely chilled, about 2 hours before serving.Place the tapioca pearls at the bottom of 2 cups. Use a cocktail shaker to shake togetherthe ice, milk, and tea and strain into each cup andserve.personal opinion : Personally we prefer the storebought option as it is too much of a hassle to prepareeach element. It also has numerous distinct flavoursand a number of toppings which can only bepurchased in bulk which makes it hard to store athome if you are not making it often.Cooking the pearls as well takes up lots of practice asyou are not experienced and will not know the correcttiming to get the desired pearl texture.However if you are homemaking it, you can decidehow you would like to cook them, changing it to yourown personal preference. Photograph: Sharon Djong
brownies (woolworths)recipe: 125g unsalted butter, chopped 125g dark chocolate, chopped 3 eggs, lightly whisked 335g (1 1/2 cups) CSR White Sugar 115g (3/4 cup) plain flour 30g (1/4 cup) Dutch cocoa powder 1 teaspoon vanilla extract Pinch of saltPreheat oven to 180C/160C fan forced. Grease a 20cm (base measurement) square cakepan and line with baking paper.Place butter and chocolate in a heatproof bowl over a saucepan of simmering water (don'tlet the bowl touch the water). Stir with a metal spoon until melted. Remove from heat.Quickly stir in egg, sugar, flour, cocoa powder, vanilla and salt until just combined. Pourinto prepared pan.Bake for 30 minutes or until a skewer inserted in the centre comes out with moist crumbsclinging. Set aside to cool completely.personal opinion: T his recipe is both fun andinteresting to make which leads to theconclusion that the homemade version of thisproduct is much better for this food product.It was relaxing to bake and required little to noeffort. This is a beginners recipe and I woulddefinitely recommend home making it ratherthan buying it. Photograph: Serena Chin
macarons (zumbo)recipe: 1 cup almond flour 3/4 cup powdered sugar 2 tablespoons natural cocoa powder 2 large egg whites ¼ teaspoon cream of tartar ¼ cup sugar.In a bowl, sift together almond flour, powdered sugar and cocoa powder.In another bowl with a whisk, beat the egg whites on medium speed until foamy. Addcream of tartar and continue to beat. Slowly add sugar one tablespoon at a time. Beatuntil hard peaks form.Sift the almond flour mixture over the whipped egg whites. Gently fold the mixture runningthe spatula clockwise from the bottom, up around the sides and cut the batter in half.Transfer the batter into a pastry bag and pipe on to baking tray.Tap the baking sheets firmly on the counter a few times to get rid of any air bubbles.Let the macarons rest and dry for 15-30 minutes. To see if it’s ready to be baked, lightlytouch it. If the batter doesn’t stick to your finger, then it’s ready.Preheat the oven to 150 C.Bake the macarons for 18-20 minutes.Transfer to wire rack to cool for 15 minutes.Heat the heavy cream in the microwave for a minute. In a medium bowl, put the chocolatechips and pour the hot cream over the chocolate. Let it stand for a minute or two and thenstir until smooth.Transfer the ganache filling into a pastry bag and fill the macarons.
personal opinion: W e think the homemade macarons are more worth than the zumbomacarons as they are overpriced at 3 each when you could make many more for acheaper price.Although zumbo macarons have a variety of different flavours, classic is always the best.Photograph: Serena ChinconclusionOverall, we believe homemade recipes are worth the time.Home cooked recipes are super flexible and can be altered to fit your desired healthneeds or wants.Home made meals contain fewer carbs, fats and sugars. Cooking at home will also costyou less, compared to dining or buying pre made meals.As per a study, it is shown that home-cooked meals meet more with the guidelines for ahealthy diet.Meals cooked at home could also reduce the risk of obesity at a young age.
BOBALICIOUS!Angela Xie and Lena Wang‘The new asian Starbucks’BOBA WHO?Invented in Tainan and Taichung inthe 1980s, bubble tea or boba. is atea based drink often blended withsweetner, flavouring and the additionof different toppings.People are obsessed with this drink.Its unique, you can mix and matchbases and toppings that counteractextremely well. The most iconictopping is a chewy and sweet tapioca balls known as pearls.Choices of bases include: fresh or soy milk coffee fruity teaChoices of toppings are in a hugevariety: popping pearls the classic pearl different jellies/herbal jelly cheese foamand many more!
The popularity of this drink has impacted the creativity leading to the creation of drinks such ascreme brulee milk tea, brown sugar milk tea and even boba ice cream. Stores of boba had takenover the world. You can find a store on nearly every corner wherever you are.Where to find boba?Boba is a worldwide phenomenon andthe new trend among exotic drinks intoday’s age. Populating worldwide injust 10 years after its first appearancein Tainan and Taichung in the 1980s,there are thousands of stores aroundthe globe and hundreds in Sydneyitself. You can’t deny that boba is anappealing drink. It’s ability to catertowards a customers preference,including the options of sugar icelevels, and a variety of flavours andtypes to choose from makes it aninsanely diverse drink.The uniqueness, inexpensive pricing, delicious taste and chewiness of the tapioca balls (boba) iswhat makes people go back after their first time. As someone wanting to get into bubble tea, youmight be confused on what store to go, what drink to try, and where you can find a store but living inSydney, all you need to do is look around. Travel to the CBD and you’ll find hundreds of storesscattered around and although they might all be different chains, the variety of drinks they presentwill always be similar, e.g pearl milk tea is the #1 selling drink and can be found in all bubble teastores.
BUBBLE TEA EVERYDAY ANYWHERE?Don’t worry if you can’t find a brick and mortar store near you, bobais so popular that instant and bottled versions have popped up. Theinstant version is just like making instant noodles except withdifferent ingredients. Just combine water with the powdered milk teasachet given and add any toppings that came with the cup, usuallyinstant boba comes with pearls or coconut jelly as toppings. And,although the bottled versions don’t contain those chewy deliciouspearls, it sure will give you your boba fix for the day. Bottled milk teais accessible in every asian supermarket and for half the price of theusual freshly brewed bubble tea. It is usually around 2 a bottle.What a bargain!AESTHETIC BOBANot only do these stores house a variety of boba drinks foryou to buy, the ambience of these stores can be likened toa coffee shop / cafe. Just like how a cafe / coffee shop hasthe lingering aromatic smell of coffee beans, boba storeshave that weirdly satisfying smell of its pearls. Themoment you walk in, the smell of tea and tapioca pearlsfills your nose,creating a comfyatmosphere.Notonly is it the smellof boba that makesa good ambience,most boba shopshave aestheticallypleasingvisuals,usually in the form of bright neon signs and subtle ambientlighting. Places like PaletTé, Song Tea, The Alley, TheMoment, Chatime and 1014 offer picturesque murals,brightly lit up signs and aesthetic decorative pieces to giveyou those photos for that weekly Instagram post.
“Bubble tea is addictivejust like a drug. The ideaof chewing while drinkingis weirdly satisfying.Usually I’ll order theclassic Pearl Milk Tea butI would recommend thefruity flavoured teas withcoconut jelly for first timedrinkers. “- Aidan 2019 (anavid drinker of bubbletea)“This bottled milk tea is super cheap andconvenient. It makes it easy for me to grab on thego and it really satisfies my cravings. It tastes justlike hong kong milk tea!”- Gabby 2019
Anime in theReal World!Tempe HighSchoolJonathan Pham and Brian LauIntroductionThe revolution of graphic entertainmentWhat makes anime special andhas evolved throughout thewhy is it popular?technological timeline, where the typesAnime is completely different fromof leisure continue to advance throughAmerican cartoons and comics that runvarious types of media. An abbreviationin daily newspapers like "Batman" andof the word animation. From a"Superman". The differences can bewestern-cultural perspective, anime is aseen in the style of artwork, storystyle of Japanese television-seriesnarration and even cultural expressionentertainment consisting of relativelyportrayed by the characters. However,immature content. However, anime hasits content doesn't shy away from epicbecome a worldwide phenomenonstorylines either, which often run forwhere its fan base has significantlydozens (sometimes hundreds) ofincreased over the history of Japaneseepisodes.animation as a whole. Anime producedAnime consists of emotionalin Japan can be seen not from just theconventions that inspire imagination andartwork but the storytelling, the themescreativity, makes us either relate or falland concepts.in love with fictional characters, and
does not apologize in the least when weanyways (culture, society, etc).laugh or cry - sometimes both for theThese differences make for asame anime.very unique comedy experience.The best anime, though, no matter whatComedy genres within anime aretheir length, all demand great emotionalbetter than comedy in the westinvolvement from the viewer.because with anime- it’sanimated, so there's more Storytelling - Each anime has itsfreedom with facial expressions,own plot that purely focusing onsilly visuals, alongside funnytelling interesting stories eitherreferences.being fictional or non-fictional. Beautiful animations andart-styles - Anime developerscreate different styles of animethat can look humorous orrealistic. Great fights/action scenes - Mostanimes contain fighting sceneswith unrealistic weapons orabilities, which really intrigueviewers because you aren’t ableto see it in real life. Relatable characters - Facialexpressions represents adifferent personality, feelings,experience and traits. All of whichcan be relatable to some people. Comedy - Japan is obviouslydifferent from the world inHow does it relate and influencesociety (e.g culture, humancharacteristics)?Most anime content consists of themesand storytelling using human attributesor human characters to portray the storyunder ordinary or supernatural context.This is significant as the amount ofcontent has great entertainment yetrelevance to the modern environmentand features of infrastructure. Anexample can be one of the most famous
anime series “Your lie in April”, wherewhich significantly impact the rate ofthe producer specified various scenesproductivity and social interactions,under the reference of infrastructures inbringing strangers together who haveAkihabara. In some animes or eventhe same interest in the same game andmovies, Japanese creators tend to addexpanding the social community.in animated real-life places such as inthe animes “Your Name” or “TokyoIs Anime okay for kids?Ghoul”.Since anime production has beenbroadcast widely in many countries, it'sdefinitely possible to find anime that issuitable for every age group. It is clearlynot an issue for younger viewers toenjoy anime appropriate for their age.Since there are many animated serieslike "Pokémon" or Studio Ghibli film “MyHero Academia" or even some seriesOne great example can be the gamethat are made specifically for youngPokemon go, customised and releasedteenage audiences like “Golden Time”in 2016 by N
2019 class oflOPVDI has done exceptionally well and will without doubt . there are both pros and cons but the ideas are only executed if the pros outweigh the cons. In the case of the light rail, the council have decided the . When your listening to music