First edition published in Great Britain in 1999Second edition published in Great Britain and the United States in 2003 by Kogan PageLimitedApart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism orreview, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publicationmay only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with theprior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction inaccordance with the terms and licences issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned addresses:120 Pentonville RoadLondon N1 Quicksilver DriveSterling VA 20166–2012USA Individual contributors, 2003The right of the individual contributors to be identified as the authors of this work hasbeen asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA CIP record for this book is available from the British Library.ISBN0 7494 3877 0 (hardback)0 7494 3799 5 (paperback)Typeset by Saxon Graphics Ltd, DerbyPrinted and bound in Great Britain by Bell & Bain Limited, Glasgow

Contents1ContributorsviiAcknowledgementsxiiiA user’s guideHeather Fry, Steve Ketteridge and Stephanie Marshall1Part 1 Development of practice72Understanding student learningHeather Fry, Steve Ketteridge and Stephanie Marshall93Organizing teaching and learning: outcomes-based planningVaneeta-marie D’Andrea264Principles of student assessmentRichard Wakeford425Encouraging student motivationStephen E Newstead and Sherria Hoskins626Lecturing for learningJennifer Horgan757Teaching and learning in small groupsSandra Griffiths918Supervising projects and dissertationsStephanie Marshall1059Teaching and learning for student skills developmentStephen Fallows12110Supporting learning from experienceLiz Beaty13411Virtual space, real learning: an introduction to VLEsJohn Pettit and Robin Mason14812Supporting student learningDavid Gosling16213Assuring quality and standards in teachingJudy McKimm18214The evaluation of teachingDai Hounsell200v

vilContentsPart 2 Development of the academic for teaching and learning21315Reflective practiceMargot Brown, Heather Fry and Stephanie Marshall21516Observation of teachingHazel Fullerton22617Teaching portfoliosHeather Fry and Steve Ketteridge242Part 3 Working in discipline-specific areas181920253Key aspects of teaching and learning in experimental sciencesand engineeringTina Overton255Key aspects of teaching and learning in information andcomputer sciencesGerry McAllister and Sylvia Alexander278Key aspects of teaching and learning in arts, humanitiesand social sciencesPhilip W Martin30121Key aspects of teaching and learning in nursing and midwiferyDella Freeth and Pam Parker32422Key aspects of teaching and learning in languagesCarol Gray and John Klapper34423Key aspects of teaching and learning in medicine and dentistryAdam Feather and Heather Fry36624Key aspects of teaching and learning in accounting, business andmanagementUrsula Lucas and Peter Milford25391Key aspects of teaching and learning in mathematics and statisticsJoe Kyle413Glossary432Index441

ContributorsTHE EDITORSHeather Fry is Head of the Centre for Educational Development at ImperialCollege London. After teaching and lecturing in Nigeria she worked at theInstitute of Education, London, and at St Bartholomew’s and Royal LondonSchool of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary’s. She teaches, publishes andresearches on a range of aspects of pedagogy and educational development inuniversity and professional settings, especially in relation to medicine anddentistry. Recent research and publications focus on learning through clinicalsimulation, using technology with campus-based students, and progress files. Sheis joint editor with Steve Ketteridge and Stephanie Marshall of The EffectiveAcademic: A Handbook for Enhanced Practice, Kogan Page (2002).Steve Ketteridge is Director of Educational and Staff Development at QueenMary, University of London where he was formerly a lecturer in microbiology. Hehas extensive experience of teaching at undergraduate and Masters levels,working with students from across the life sciences and civil engineering. Hismain interest is in the development of academic practice and he has worked withresearch staff and students in many research-led universities and research institutes. More recently his interests have extended into academic management andleadership. He is joint editor with Stephanie Marshall and Heather Fry of TheEffective Academic: A Handbook for Enhanced Practice, Kogan Page (2002).Stephanie Marshall is Director of Staff Development and Provost of GoodrickeCollege at the University of York. Her latter role has led to an active interest insupporting students who are ‘let loose’ on project and dissertation research,requiring an outside facilitator to assist them in project management skills. Priorto her current post, she was a lecturer in Educational Studies. Since then, she hasretained an active interest in both educational, leadership and management development, teaching, publishing and researching on various aspects of the pedagogyof both higher education and management development. She is joint editor withSteve Ketteridge and Heather Fry of The Effective Academic: A Handbook forEnhanced Practice, Kogan Page (2002).vii

viiilContributorsTHE AUTHORSProfessor Liz Beaty is Director of Learning and Teaching at the Higher EducationFunding Council for England. She was formerly Head of Learning Developmentat Coventry University, responsible for courses for teaching staff and for projectsdeveloping new approaches to teaching and higher education research.Margot Brown is National Co-ordinator at the Centre for Global Education, YorkSt John. She has worked with teachers and student teachers in developing globalperspectives and active learning strategies for use in classroom and collegecourses.Sylvia Alexander is a lecturer in Informatics at the University of Ulster. Herresearch interests are in the area of computer science education, particularly pedagogic and technological innovation. In 2002 she completed her PGCUT(Certificate in University Teaching) by APEL.Professor Vaneeta D’Andrea is Co-Director of the HEFCE Teaching QualityEnhancement Fund, National Co-ordination Team and Director of EducationalDevelopment Centre at City University, London. She has published and consultedglobally on professional development programmes on teaching/learning inhigher education.Stephen Fallows is Research Co-ordinator for the Centre for Exercise andNutrition Science at Chester College of Higher Education. He returned to hisinitial academic discipline (nutrition science) in 2001 after almost 10 years’ workin educational development at the University of Luton. He is co-editor (withChristine Steven) of Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education, also published byKogan Page.Adam Feather is a Consultant Physician in Medicine for the Elderly at NewhamGeneral Hospital. He is also a lecturer in medical education at St George’sHospital Medical School and has written several medical undergraduate assessment text books.Della Freeth is Reader in Education for Health Care Practice in the StBartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London. Hermain interests are in interprofessional learning, learning through simulatedprofessional practice and means of supporting evidence-informed practice.

ContributorslixHazel Fullerton was formerly Head of Educational Development Services at theUniversity of Plymouth and co-chair of the Staff and Educational DevelopmentAssociation. She has wide experience of supporting teaching and learning, including the observation of teaching across many disciplines. Hazel is currently revisiting her former career as an artist in South West England.David Gosling is Co-Director of the National Co-ordination Team for TeachingQuality Enhancement at the Centre for Higher Education Practice at the OpenUniversity. His research interests include philosophical approaches to educationaldevelopment and the management of change in higher education.Carol Gray is Lecturer in Modern Languages in Education, University ofBirmingham. She is involved in the development of initial and in-service trainingfor modern languages and publishes on a range of related topics.Sandra Griffiths is Director of the Educational Development Unit at theUniversity of Ulster. With a background in teaching in several sectors of education, she has been much involved in developing and teaching on a postgraduatecertificate for university teachers.Jennifer Horgan is Student Services Manager with the Open University in Waleswhere she has responsibility for the provision of generic Associate LecturerSupport and Development. She was previously Director of Staff Development atthe University of Wales, Aberystwyth and has taught across many sectors ofeducation, including providing initial teacher training for science teachers.Dr Sherria Hoskins is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at the University ofPortsmouth. Her research interests include qualitative and quantitative differences in student motivation, with a specific interest in the impact of the learningenvironment.Professor Dai Hounsell is Professor of Higher Education at the University ofEdinburgh and previously Director of the Centre of Teaching, Learning andAssessment at that University. He publishes and advises widely on teaching andlearning matters and is an editor of the international journal Higher Education.Professor John Klapper is Director of the Centre for Modern Languages,University of Birmingham. He has published materials for the teaching ofGerman and Russian and has written on various aspects of foreign languagepedagogy and teacher development.

xlContributorsJoseph Kyle is Senior Lecturer and Director of Learning and Teaching in theSchool of Mathematics and Statistics at Birmingham University; Mathematics coordinator for the LTSN Mathematics, Statistics & Operational Research Network,and an editor for Teaching Mathematics and its Applications.Ursula Lucas is Principal Lecturer at the Bristol Business School, University of theWest of England. Her research interests are in higher education and learning in theprofessional workplace. In 2001 she was awarded an ILT National TeachingFellowship.Professor Philip Martin is Director of the Learning and Teaching SupportNetwork (LTSN) English Subject Centre, at Royal Holloway. He has a particularinterest in the development of interdisciplinary work, and is an editor of the interdisciplinary journal Literature & History.Robin Mason is Professor of Educational Technology in The Open University’sInstitute for Educational Technology and chairs a module in the MA in Open andDistance Education, called Learning in the Connected Economy (in joint development with Cambridge University). She also contributes to the development of theUK e-University and writes extensively about educational technology.Gerry McAllister is Director of the National LTSN Centre for Information andComputer Sciences at the University of Ulster. His research interests include newmethods of detection and correction for Hearing Acuity and the use of Technologyin Teaching and Assessment.Judy McKimm is Head of Curriculum Development at Imperial College School ofMedicine. She manages a number of overseas and UK-based projects concerninghealth management, staff development and quality management. She is anaccreditor for the ILT and was a medicine subject reviewer for the QAA and WelshFunding Council.Peter Milford is Head of the School of Accounting and Finance at Bristol BusinessSchool, University of the West of England. His teaching specialism is financialmanagement and his research interests include accountability and control in thepublic sector. He has consultancy experience in the pharmaceutical industry andthe health sector.Professor Stephen Newstead is Dean of the Faculty of Human Sciences at theUniversity of Plymouth and was President of the British Psychological Societyduring 1995 and 1996. His research interests include the psychology of assessmentand learning in higher education.

ContributorslxiTina Overton is a Senior Lecturer in Chemistry at the University of Hull and theDirector of the LTSN Subject Centre for Physical Sciences. She is interested in allaspects of chemical education, particularly critical thinking, problem solving andproblem-based learning.Pam Parker is Senior Lecturer: Educational Developments in the St BartholomewSchool of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London. Her main interests arein the assessment of clinical practice and interprofessional education.John Pettit is a lecturer in The Open University’s Institute of EducationalTechnology. He is chair of an online module in IET’s MA in Open and DistanceEducation, and is also chairing a team providing staff development in onlineteaching/learning.Richard Wakeford is the University Staff Development Officer at the Universityof Cambridge. He is an experienced researcher, teacher and presenter, havingworked in the fields of education and medicine, and he now runs staff development activities on student assessment, selection, and teaching and learning. He isbest known for his work and publications in the fields of the assessment ofmedical competence and in medical education generally.Case study authorsDr Claire Adjiman, Chemical Engineering, Imperial College LondonDr Pat Bailey, Chemistry, University of Manchester Institute of Science andTech

Nutrition Science at Chester College of Higher Education. He returned to his initial academic discipline (nutrition science) in 2001 after almost 10 years’ work in educational development at the University of Luton. He is co-editor (with Christine Steven) of Integrating Key Skills in