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Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide 1Recruit FirefighterConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide 21 Darin Echelberger/ShutterStock, Inc.CHAPTER 6Fire BehaviorConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide 3Fires Are Not Unpredictable! A thorough knowledge of fire behavior will helpyou predict fireground eventsSome have said that fires in modern furnishedhomes are unpredictableNothing is unpredictable, firefighters just need toknow what clues to look forConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide 4Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramCHEMISTRY OF COMBUSTIONConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program1 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide 5Chemistry Understanding thechemistry of fire willmake you moreeffective Fire behavior is one ofthe largestconsiderations whenchoosing tacticsUnit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorA basic understanding of how fire burns will give afirefighter the ability to choose the best means ofextinguishmentFire behavior and building construction are thebasis for all of our actions on the fire groundConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide 6What is Fire? A rapid chemical reaction that produces heatand lightConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide 7Types of ReactionsExothermic Gives off heatEndothermic Absorbs heatConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide 8Types of CombustionFlaming Visible flameNon-Flaming SmolderingNon-flaming combustion can still damagestructural components of a buildingNon-flaming combustion produces the highestconcentrations of toxic gasesOften found during backdraft or decaying firesConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program2 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide 9States of Matter All fuels must be converted to a gas before theywill burnUnit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorWater is a simple example of the 3 states of matterSolids must be heated to the point where they beginto decompose and give off combustible vaporsLiquids must be at a minimum temperature to giveoff enough vapors to burnConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide10Requirements for CombustionFire TriangleIf any part of the tetrahedron is removed, the firegoes outFire TetrahedronIf any part of the tetrahedron is amplified, the fireintensifiesConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide11Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramPROPERTIES OF FUELSConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide12Types of FuelsOrganicInorganic fuels lack carbon and hydrogen atombondsInorganicInorganic fuel example- methane, flammablemetalsOrganic Fuel- wood & natural fuelsConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program3 of 26Organic fuels came from something that was aliveat one pointRevision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide13Organic FuelsHydrocarbon BasedHydrocarbon based fires are typically seen withlarge volumes of black smokeCellulose BasedHydrocarbons include any fossil fuel, plastics, andsynthetics that use any part of oil in their makeupCellulose based typically have a grey to brownsmokeConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide14Changes in FuelsOlder Generations Wood, cotton, naturalfibersModern Day Plastics, synthetics, foamrubberExamples include wood, strawRooms furnished with older, legacy typefurnishings took much longer to reach flashoverand didn’t give off the volume of toxic smoke thatmodern furnishings doModern furnishings can cause a room to reachflashover in 5 minutes or lessConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramThe toxic smoke produced can kill in less than afew minutesSlide15Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide16FuelsSome texts refer to a fuel as a reducing agent May be referred to as a “Reducing Agent”Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program4 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide17Solids Definite shape and size As it is heated, Pyrolysis occurs– The material decomposes and gives off flammablevaporsFires involving solid fuels are the easiest to handleThe fuel must be heated and change state in orderto burnThe fuel stays stationaryConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide18Liquids Has a mass and volume, but no definite shape Assumes the shape of the container Density compared to waterFires involving flammable liquids are harder tocontrolThe fuel can travel easilyMany flammable liquids are already found at ornear their flash point so they may be giving offenough vapors to burnConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramExample of diesel fuel vs. gasolineWater alone typically does not work well toextinguish themFoam is often neededSlide19Gases Has mass but not a definite volume Expand indefinitelyGases are the hardest to handleThey are already in the required state to burnAs long as the concentration is rightThey expand and travel indefinitelyMost gases are heavier than air so they collect inlow areas and poolConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramThey can pool enough to form an ignitable mixtureLighter than air gases will dissipate shortly afterescapingOnly 13 gases are lighter than airTypically controlled by shutting off the fuelThey are typically allowed to burn5 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide20Orientation of the Fuel A solid fuel arranged vertically will ignite andburn faster than one arranged horizontallyWall coverings burn easily but floors are oftenminimally damagedSides of furniture will spread fire faster thanhorizontal surfacesConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide21Mass of the FuelHay vs. pallets A denser fuel will take longer to ignite than aless dense materialConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide22Surface Area A fuel with greater exposed surface area willburn faster 1Lb. Of sawdust vs. a 1Lb. Block of woodConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program6 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide23Ignition Temperature The minimum temperature to which a substancemust be heated before it will spontaneously burnThis occurs without an outside ignition source Wood 572 Gasoline- 536 Carbon Monoxide- 1128 Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide24Flash Point vs. Fire PointFlash Point Temperature at which aliquid gives off sufficientvapors to form anignitable mixture in airFire Point Temperature at which aliquid gives off sufficientvapors to burncontinuously after ignitionfor at least 5 secondsExamples on the next slideThese are typically very close in temperatureConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide25Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide26Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramHEAT AS ENERGYConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program7 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide27Temperature A measurement of energy Expressed in Fahrenheit or CelsiusConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide28Heat of CombustionExamples on next slide The total amount of heat released when a fuelburnsConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide29Measuring Energy Measured in Btu’sEnergy in Btu’sFuelCommon UnitNatural Gas1 cubic foot1,030 Btu’sPropane1 gallon91,000 Btu’sGasoline1 gallon125,000 Btu’sFuel Oil1 gallon140,000 Btu’sFirewood1 cord25,000,000 Btu’sCoal1 lb.13,000 Btu’sConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program8 of 26These numbers assume the complete combustion ofeach materialThe rate at which they release this heat isdangerousHeat release rate is discussed on next slideA Btu is the amount of energy needed toraise 1lb of water 1 FRevision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide30Heat Release RateWe can see that a typical plywood wardrobe burnsalmost as fast as a pool of methanol Amount of heat released over a period of timeConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide31Chemical Heat EnergyExample- sodium exposed to air Energy created by a chemical reactionConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide32Mechanical Heat EnergyExample- compressing air into an SCBA cylinderor rubbing sticks together to make fire Friction or compressionConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide33Electrical Heat Energy Resistance Arcing Circuit overloadArc welding is an example of heat caused by arcingResistance example- a dimmer switch for lightsEnergy not sent to the light bulb is dissipated asheatA fuse is an example of a circuit overloadConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramA small wire only allows a certain amount ofcurrent to pass through. Any excess will cause thewire to failMultiple devices working off of one small circuitcan cause heat to build up degrading the insulationof a wire. Eventually it will fail causing arcing andmay start a fire9 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide34Heat of Decomposition As materials decompose, they give off heatUnit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorFires in mulch piles are a good exampleThe mulch also acts as an insulating blanketkeeping heat inConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide35Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramCLASSES OF FIREConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide36Class “A”Ordinary Solid Fuels Wood Paper ClothPreferred Method ofExtinguishment Cool with waterConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide37Class “B”Flammable or CombustibleLiquids Gasoline Diesel KerosenePreferred Method ofExtinguishmentVideo example shows a person doused withrubbing alcohol. They try to extinguish it withwater but its ineffective Shut off the fuel Smother with foamConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program10 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide38Class “C”Energized ElectricalEquipment TransformersElectrical panelsElectric motorsThe fuel is the insulationand lubricantsUnit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorOnce the equipment is de-energized, it can betreated as a class “A” firePreferred Method ofExtinguishment De-energize theequipmentConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide39Class “D”Combustible Metals Burns at a hightemperature Magnesium Aluminum SodiumPreferred Method ofExtinguishment Application of dry powder Do not use water!Flammable metals are often water reactiveThe video shows a car fire when water is applied tomagnesiumMagnesium is often found in vehicle constructionReinforces the need to proper PPE at car firesConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide40Class “K”Combustible Cooking Oilsor FatsVideo shows what happens when water is appliedto a cooking fire (oil or grease)Preferred Method ofExtinguishment Application of specialagents The agents react to thefats and create a foam(Saponification)Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program11 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesUnit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorSlide41Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramOXYGENConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide42Air Content Air contains approximately 21% oxygenConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide43Low Oxygen Levels Materials can ignite and burn at levels as low as14% At high temperatures, flaming combustion canoccur at low oxygen levelsConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide44SmolderingSmoldering fires produce the highest amounts oftoxic and flammable smoke If oxygen is diminished, smoldering or surfacecombustion occursConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program12 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide45High Oxygen LevelsUnit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorHigh oxygen levels can be expected in medicalfacilities, pool stores At high concentrations, fires can greatly intensifyConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide46Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramSMOKEConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide47Smoke Contents Smoke contains particulates, vapors, and gasesSmoke, in the right concentrations, can beconsidered fuelParticulates are solid matter suspended in theatmosphereVapors are liquids suspended in the atmosphereConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide48Toxic Smoke Gases Much of this is covered during the SCBA & PPElecture, but is worth reviewingCarbon MonoxideCarbon DioxideHydrogen CyanidePhosgeneConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program13 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide49Ladder Gases Acrolein - 450 Benzene - 928 Hydrogen Cyanide - 1004 Carbon Monoxide - 1128 Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe “ladder” gases simply demonstrate why we seefingers of fire in smokeThe lower temperature gases light off fasterThese gases burning also accelerates the heating ofthe other gasesConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide50Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramFIRE DEVELOPMENTConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide51FuelsOlder homes may have wood that has had time todry longer Most fires involve solid fuels Ignition temperature of wood varies due todensity and water contentConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide52Radiant HeatRadiant heat effects the compartment, but is alsothe biggest factor in exposures burning Walls, ceilings, and floors absorb radiant heat Heat that is not absorbed is radiated back intothe room increasing the rate of combustionConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program14 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide53Convected HeatThis causes fires to travel from lower floors toupper floors even without direct flame contact Hot smoke becomes buoyant The heat transfers to the other materials Nearby fuels pyrolize causing fire extensionConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide54Thermal Layering Heated gases rise and form layers Water applied to a fire creates steam Steam rises, displacing the heated gases atceiling level downwardThis is why we apply water at the ceiling level firstIt cools the gases before they get driven down ontop of advancing crewsVentilation also prevents the gases from beingdriven down onto crewsConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide55Incipient or Ignition Phase When sufficient heat, fuel, and oxygen cometogether to create combustion Development depends upon amount, type, andconfiguration of fuelsVery little heat in the roomOccupants can safely escapeFire easily extinguished by a small portable fireextinguisherConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide56Growth Fire begins to influence the environment withinthe compartment Growth is limited by fuel and oxygen present Pockets of flame may be visible in the smokeThis is where a noticeable thermal layering beginsOccupants still have the ability to escapeVictims located within the room are still viableConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program15 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide57Rollover Heated gases (smoke) ignite across the ceilinglevelRollover typically precedes flashoverIt can be a warning sign to flashover, but thick,dark smoke can prevent it from being noticed bycrews crawling on the floorThe heat then radiates into the room bringingeverything up to its ignition temperatureConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide58Flashover All combustible materials in the room ignite Temperatures exceed 1000 degrees Unprotected civilians have little chance ofsurvivalThe fire will continue as long as fuel and oxygenremainFirefighters have only seconds to escape withoutinjurySeveral videos to followConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program NIST flashover video Small compartment fire developmentSlide59Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program Fire from Huntsville, TX 2 story wood frame multiple dwelling Fire can be seen developing then flashing over Note the volume of fire present after flashover Also note how rapidly the fire knocksSlide60downConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program16 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor Notes Training fire Shows how flashover can be brought on bySlide61Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Programimproper ventilation There is initially no ventilation Opening the front door supplied oxygenand allowed the heated gases to escape This is necessary and acceptableon the fireground because we haveto get in somewhere! Placing the PPV fan in the front door actedlike a “bellows” on the fire, causing it tointensify and flash over This is especially true with thelack of ventilation at any other partof the building PPV fans should never be used during fire attack,ESPECIALLY after crews have entered the houseand with no adequate ventilation opposite thecrews & fan Note the smoke conditions on the front porches Predict what was going to follow Fire is easily visible from a “B” side window, butSlide62it is more important to predict where the fire willspreadConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program Note that the smoke is venting quickly This indicates a decent heat condition onSlide63the 2nd floor Venting in this manner may have to be delayed ifthere is no engine company on that floor of if theyare delayedConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program17 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide64Signs of Flashover Some visible signs may not be obvious whileoperating inside the building High heat High volume of dense “velvety” looking smoke Fingers of flame in the smokeConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide65Fully Developed When all combustible materials in the room areburning Maximum heat and large amounts of gases arereleased Fire is ventilation controlledConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide66Decay Fuels are consumed or oxygen levels aredecreased to a level where they can not supportcombustion Visible flame is reduced High concentrations of heat may remainConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide67Backdraft Explosion that occurs when oxygen is introducedto a compartment which still has high heat andcombustible gasesConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program18 of 26 Flashover and backdraft are often confused Backdraft occurs from oxygen beingintroduced into a room which is oxygendeprived The result has a concussive, explosiontype of effect Flashover is caused by heating of thecontents Not explosive in natureRevision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide68Signs of Backdraft When confronted with suspected backdraftconditions, vertical ventilation is a priorityLittle visible flameSmoke stained windowsPressurized turbulent smoke“Breathing” buildingConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program Training fire showing the concussive nature of aSlide69backdraft The signs of backdraft are not visible in this videoConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program St. Johnsbury, VT 3-4 story taxpayer Some signs of backdraft are visible around the 2ndSlide70floor areaConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program Battalion Chief being caught in backdraft Signs of backdraft are not really presentSlide71Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program19 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesUnit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorSlide72Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program Attic fire that backdrafted A.k.a. “cockloft explosion” Heat and pressure built up in the attic spaceSlide73because the ventilation is limited Once something introduces oxygen (failedConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Programsheetrock, small vent opening, etc.) theattic backdrafts This causes the ceiling in the upper floorto collapse on crews underneath Note that it was powerful enough tocause the chimney to separate from thehouse These are NOT common on peakedroof buildings They typically have better ventilation These typically occur on flat roofbuildings Minor backdraft occurs at a private dwelling Wind can hide the signs of impending backdraftSlide74Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program20 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor Notes No signs of backdraft visibleSlide75Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program Texas fire in private dwellingSlide76Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program Harrison, NJ Signs of backdraft present quickly followed bySlide77explosionConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide78Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program21 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide79Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramFIRE SPREADConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide80Heat Transfer Heat transfers from hot to cold The greater the temperature difference, thefaster the transferConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide81Conduction Direct flame contact to an object or a heatedobject transferring heat to another Heat transferred by direct heat / flame contactConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide82Convection Typically how fires travel from lower floors tohigher ones Transfer of heat through smoke and air currents Flows from the hot gases to the cooler objectsConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program22 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide83RadiationUnit 6.1Chapter 6Fire Behavior Typically the biggest concern with exposures Transfer of heat in the form of an invisible wave Travels in all directions in a straight lineConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide84Size of the Compartment Obviously fires of equal size would behavedifferently in the two occupancies shown The size of the fire room / area will dictate howfast the fire will developConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide85Ventilation and Fire Behavior As much as proper ventilation can help fire attack,improper ventilation can hamper it How, When, and Where we ventilate can help orlimit fire spreadConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide86Gas Fuel Fires Knowing the fuels vapor density will help predictpotential ignition sources Vapor density is measured against air– 1 gas will rise– 1 gas will sinkConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program23 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide87Flammability LimitsLELUEL The minimumconcentration of a fuel inair that will burn Propane - 2.1% Acetylene - 2.5% The maximumconcentration of a fuel inair that will burn Propane – 10.1% Acetylene - 81%Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide88BLEVE BLEVE video Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosionConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program 20lb LP tank explosion at a garage fireSlide89Connecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide90Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramMETHODS OFEXTINGUISHMENTConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program24 of 26Revision: 011414

The Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide91CoolingUnit 6.1Chapter 6Fire Behavior Typically the best for class “A” fires Use water to cool the surface temperature of thefuel Enough water must be applied to overcome theheat being producedConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide92Fuel Removal Typically the best means for flammable gas fires Close valves / pipes supplying flammable liquidsor gases Allow a combustible material to consume itselfConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide93Smothering Typical for combustible liquid fires Separate the surface of the fuel from the airsupporting combustionConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide94Oxygen Exclusion Must be applied until the fuel is shut off or it hascooled enough to prevent re-ignition Eliminate the oxygen supporting combustionConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program25 of 26Revision: 011414

Unit 6.1Chapter 6Fire BehaviorThe Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit Firefighter ProgramPresentation Instructor NotesSlide95Chemical Flame Inhibition Fires typically won’t flare back up after dry-chemis applied Agents interrupt the chemical chain reaction Effective on liquid and gas firesConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit ProgramSlide96Connecticut Fire AcademyRecruit ProgramConnecticut Fire Academy – Recruit Program26 of 26Revision: 011414

Connecticut Fire Academy Recruit Program CLASSES OF FIRE Connecticut Fire Academy Recruit Program Slide 36 Connecticut Fire Academy Recruit Program &ODVV³ Ordinary Solid Fuels Wood Paper Cloth Preferred Method of Extinguishment Cool with water Slide 37 Connecticut Fire Academy Recruit Program &ODVV³% Flammable or Combustible