Eric MacLeanA Theoretical Review of the Physiological Demands of Ice Hockey A Theoretical Review of the Physiological Demands of Ice-Hockey and aFull Year Periodized Sport Specific Conditioning Program for theCanadian Junior Hockey PlayerEric MacLean, B.HK, CSCS, CK, CFCSchool of Exercise, Biomedical, and Health Sciences, Edith Cowen University, Perth,AustraliaThe recent growth of scientific athleticperformance assessment methodology andtechnique procedures, and the proliferation ofthis innovation, has lead to an increase in thespecificity with which sport, and the processesand mechanisms regulating performance with init, is investigated and understood.In recent years several investigators haveconducted field and laboratory bioenergeticbased physical demand research investigatingboth the physiologic (10,11,13,14,18,19,21,24,30,31,34), and biomechanical (13,19,30,31)demands of ice hockey performance.Time motion and physical task analysisresearch indicates that ice hockey is a start andstop, one-on-one, intermittent collision sport,where practice and competitive play consists of,and is characterized by, explosive dynamicmovement patterns, and the technical skills ofskating, shooting, passing, and body checking(11,30,31).Task analysis data indicates that ice hockeygame tasks are closed kinetic chain movements,and require high levels of absolute strength(14,18,22) and muscular power andendurance(14,18,19,22), and demanding highlyconditioned aerobic and anaerobic energypathways (11,14,18,22,24,28,30,31,34).Further, Green et al. (13) report thatmeasures of successful ice hockey performance,and level of competitive play can be correlatedan athlete’s physiologic profile.A review of the time motion and physicaldemands analysis indicates that elite hockeyperformance is facilitated through a complexintegration of neuromuscular and cardiovascularphysiological processesIt is important for the practicing hockeyspecific strength and conditioning professional tohave a comprehensive theoretical understandingand practical knowledge of the biomechanic andphysiologic mechanisms that regulate athleticperformance within the particular sport theirathlete’s are competing in.The following review intends to presentpublished ice hockey specific bioenergetic, andtime motion and physical demands research tosummarize the physiologic and physicaldemands required of successful ice-hockeyperformance. Further, this review will attempt tosynthesize a series of practical applications andto provide a model 12 month periodized hockeyspecific conditioning program designed toenhance hockey specific physiological andperformance attributes.A case study, representative of a CanadianJunior Hockey League (Ontario Hockey League,Western Hockey League, and Quebec MajorJunior Hockey League) athlete’s full yearschedule demands will be used to referencespecific timing and sequencing of trainingperiods, their respective training purposes, andtheir individual protocol design variables.Particular attention will be made to exerciseselection, training methodology, and intensityvariables, in attempts of providing the practicinghockey strength and conditioning professionalwith a research supported hockey practicalhockey conditioning reference.Energy SystemsTime motion analysis conducted by Green etal. (11), and Twist and Rhodes (30,31) indicatesthat a typical shift lasts approximately 30-80seconds, and is followed immediately by 4 to 5minutes of passive recovery (19,28). Whilepositional (30), and physiological (13)differences are reported to influence an athlete’splaying time; Twist and Rhodes (30) reportdefensemen play close to 50% of a game, whileforwards play approximately 35%, the reported1:3.5 – 1:8 work to rest ratio, indicates icehockey is powered transitionally through aerobicand anaerobic energy pathways.Montgomery (19), and Twist and Rhodes(30) report that peak on-ice heart rates exceed90% of maximum, with average heart ratesabove 85% of maximum. Heart rate assessment1

Eric MacLeanis a direct measure of metabolic demand; oxygenconsumption, and an indication of the relativephysical intensity endured during shift.Due to the nature of a Canadian HockeyLeague shift, the high heart rate is reflective ofthe high energy requirements, and indicates thatoxidative metabolism is not fully capable ofsatisfying an athlete’s energy demands.Green et al. (13) support the contentions ofMontgomery (19), and Twist and Rhodes (30,31)in reporting that hockey athletes require bothhighly developed aerobic and anaerobicglycolytic and phosphagen energy pathways, asit is these energy systems which provide the ATPneeded to sustain repetitive high energy powerand endurance outputs incurred during practiceand competitive play (31).Pioneering work conducted by Seliger et al.(17), and Green et al. (11) quantified themetabolic demands of ice hockey performance,and concluded that the anaerobic glycolytic andAdenoside Triphosphate Phosphocreatine (ATPPC) energy systems provide 69%, and oxidativephosphorylation 31% of the energy demand ofice hockey play (17).Twist and Rhodes (31) report that 60-70%of the energy requirements of the body duringperiods of moderate activity within an ice hockeygame are fueled by aerobic metabolism, but notethat this contribution is subject to variability dueto inter and intragame variations in intensity,level of competition, position, and the player’slevel of conditioning.Bioenergetic functional capacity research (3)reveals that the ATP-PC, and the glycolyticenergy system’s ATP production peaks after 1045 seconds, and provides the energy required forshifts lasting an average of 45 seconds.Shifts lasting longer than 45 seconds arecharacteristic of fatiguing musculature, andrepresentative of an inverse performancerelationship (30). As ATP production continuesto rely on the glycolytic pathway, lactate andhydrogen ion concentration increase (11),contributing to increased fatigue and decreasedperformance.Green et al. (11), and Twist and Rhodes (30)report that in-game glycolytic energetics arereported to create blood lactate levels measuring8.7mmol/L (11), to 15.1mmol/L (30),representing a significant increase above normalresting 1.0-2.0mmol/L values (3). While thesevalues are below that which can be produced ona cycle ergometer (11), or other assessmentmethods, it provides a measure of performanceintensity and fatigue rates; for further discussionA Theoretical Review of the Physiological Demands of Ice Hockey on the relationship between lactate accumulationand fatigue refer to Chapter 5 of Essentials ofStrength and Conditioning 2nd Edition (3).Performance decrements are the product ofincreased reliance on the glycolytic pathway andconcurrent utilization of intramuscular glycogen(19), intracellular phosphagen depletion, andsymbiotic Hydrogen ion and lactateaccumulation (11,17). These factors are knownto alter intracellular acidity, and cause cellulardisruption, ultimately leading to, and physicallyexpressed as local muscular fatigue.Aerobic energetics provides oxidativerecovery between shifts. Aerobic strength ismeasured by the rate of oxygen consumption.The greater the volume of oxygen an athlete isable to consume over a shorter period of time,the more efficient they are in utilizing oxygen,rather than the substrates of phosphocreatine, orglycogen, for ATP metabolism.The importance of a well developed aerobicsystem in ice hockey is demonstrated be adecreased recovery time between shifts and byreduced fatigue in the latter stages of a game(22,29).Green et al. (13) assessed the relationshipbetween physiologic profiles and on-iceperformance of National Collegiate AthleticAssociation (NCAA) division I hockey players,and found a positive correlation (r 0.41, p 0.03)between VO2max and net scoring chances, andlactate concentrations (r 0.41, p 0.03) and icetime. The significance of these findings to thepracticing ice hockey strength and conditioningis that aerobic capacity has a direct positiverelationship to playing time, and net scoringchances.The relationship between ice time andlactate concentration is found in the fact thatcoaches play those athletes who can performwith a higher intensity more frequently in moregame situations; power plays, penalty kills, instrategic points in the game etc. over the courseof the game. Further, the positive correlationbetween VO2max and net scoring chances isspeculated to be attributed to the athlete’s abilityto recover more efficiently, and participate inmore game situations involving scoring chancesfor (playing on the power play, playing later inthe game when the opponent is fatigued etc.),and playing with more intensity while indefensive situations, preventing the opposingscoring chances (13).A review of positional demands; ice time,and physical task analysis, indicates thatforwards and defensemen have different energy2

Eric MacLeanA Theoretical Review of the Physiological Demands of Ice Hockey system utilization patterns. While theimportance of having well conditioned aerobicand anaerobic systems are equally justified,recovery demands characteristic to the positionsare different, and require a different work to restratios, and different VO2max values.Twist and Rhodes (30) report that forwardsrequire a higher recovery time and play lessshifts that defensemen due to the tasks theyperform; they cover more surface area, arerequired to change directions and generateincreases in skating velocity more frequentlythan defensemen. While Twist and Rhodesreport that defensemen engage in similaractivities, with similar intensities, the differencein frequency of the demands, necessitatesforwards play less shifts, and recover longer.Twist and Rhodes (31) report that elite icehockey forwards and defensemen require amaximum oxygen consumption rate of60ml/kg/min and 50ml/kg/min respectively.Ice Hockey Specific Strength andConditioning ProgrammingRecommendationsParticipation in Canadian junior hockey(CHL) necessitates full year athleticconditioning. More specifically, an athlete’sconditioning regimen should be specific to thecurrent demands of the athlete’s season. TheCanadian junior hockey season can be dividedinto 4 distinct season; the off-season, pre-season,in-season, and off-season, each of which, arerepresentative of different training priorities.Table 2.0Summary of Training Phase PrioritySeasonOff-SeasonTraining PrioritiesMuscle hypertrophy, strength, power and enduranceEnhancing Aerobic and Anaerobic capacityDeveloping Agility, Speed, and ExplosivenessImproving Technical SkillsPre-SeasonReturning to 'Game Shape'Refining sport specific skills and movement patternsPeaking in Aerobic and Anaerobic capacitiesDeveloping team chemistry and bondingIn-SeasonMuscle strength, power, and endurance maintenanceAerobic and Anaerobic capacity maintenanceInjury PreventionPost-SeasonMuscle strength, power, and endurance maintenanceAerobic and Anaerobic capacity maintenanceInjury PreventionTable 1.0Comparison of VO2Max Scores in Ice Hockey PlayersReferenceCunningham et al., 1976Montpetit et al., 1979Rusko, et al., 1978Green et al., 2006Rhodes et al., 1988Twist & Rhodes, 1993LevelAge(mean)VO2Maxml of O2 5N/A56.658.161.559 /- 454.157.4 /1 3.1In addition to the bioenergetic demands ofice hockey performance, the practicing strengthand conditioning professional must have abiomechanical understanding of the movementpatterns associated with the sport.Task analysis indicates that hockey involvescoordinated multi-joint, multi-limb movementpatterns, and rapid rates of force development inexecuting the technical skills of skating, passing,shooting, and body checkingBiomechanical analysis indicates thathockey specific movements are classified asclosed kinetic chain (14).The Specific Adaptations to ImposedDemands (SAID) principle states that theadaptive response to training is specific to thedemands of the training regimen. Effective icehockey specific training must incorporate theSAID principle (14,19), and it is the role of thestrength coach to identify the performancedemands associated with successfulperformance, and integrate them into theathlete’s training program.Regardless of training priorities, outlined inTable 2.0, the purpose of training is to improveoverall athleticism (14). Green et al. (13) reportthat a player’s conditioning level may influencethe coach’s decision on the number of minutesthey receive in a game, especially during doubleshifting and penalty-killing situations.More specifically, the strength andconditioning coach is recommended to designconditioning programs that work the body as alinked system.Human movement can be described as beingthe product of multiple joint and limb segmentsco-activated, moving the body synergistically asa linked system. This training paradigm is moreappropriate, than open chain, machine basedresistance training for sport specificconditioning, as it utilizes sport specific, andfunctional movement patterns as the basis for thedevelopment of performance based physiologicalattributes.Linked system exercise patterns is moreapplicable and appropriate for sport, and morespecifically ice hockey, as it’s induced agonist /antagonist co-contraction synergy contributes togreater muscle balance and synchronization of3

Eric MacLeanA Theoretical Review of the Physiological Demands of Ice Hockey lower back will not withstand the continualisometric contraction of the back extensors in theskating position and the stressful twisting actionsthroughout a gameThe practicing strength coach must be awarethat the pathology of hockey injuries is related toinadequate muscular strength and size, andflexibility profiles. Lean muscle mass is criticalfor reducing the risk and severity of injury, as ithas the ability to absorb potential compressionand shear forces preventing uneven distribution.It is reported that both consistentparticipation in stretching and strength trainingmay help prevent injury. Manners (14)concludes that absolute strength is of greaterimportance to the hockey player than relativestrength, as it is absolute strength that is able tomore efficiently absorb high impact forces, andthe physical contact associated with the game atthe Canadian Junior level.Twist and Rhodes (31) further suggest thatmuscle balance is important for injury preventionand athletic performance. A joint may be moresusceptible to injury when there is a strengthimbalance between muscle groups. Hockeyplayers should strive towards a hamstring /quadriceps strength ratio of 60 % to preventinjury to the hamstrings.Table 3.0 is an full-year schematic trainingmodel outlining the training schedule of a typicalCanadian Junior hockey player.motor unit contraction. This neuromuscularresponse, and adaptive response contributes togreater functional balance, and functional, sportspecific strength. Sport-specific strength willhelp produce a lower centre of gravity andincrease inertia, contributing to the developmentof greater dynamic stability (27).Appendices 1.0 contains a sample ofexercise movements applicable for developingtotal body muscular strength and power as a‘linked’ system.Daly et al. (5) report the injuries experienceduring ice hockey performance are related todirect trauma (80%) and overuse (20%), and thata participant can anticipate injury after 7 to 100hours of hockey play. Daly et al (5) summarizethe most common hockey upper extremityinjuries as acromioclavicular joint dislocations,scaphoid fractures, lower extremities injuriespredominately involve soft tissue, with strains ofthe hip adductor, tears in the medial collateralligament of the knee, and contusions of the thigh.Twist and Rhodes (31), report that the majorcause of injury during the skating action resultsfrom inadequate strength and flexibility in theleg adductors and abductors, and that hockeyplayers skate with a slight back flexion, placingdemands on lower back strength and flexibility.Twist and Rhodes claim that without preparatoryand preventative attention to the lower back area,the players back is predisposed to injury, as theTable 3.0A Generalized Full Season Periodized Hockey Specific Strength and Conditioning Program for Canadian Junior Hockey (OHL, QMJHL, WHL)2007 - 2008 Season Calender YearAugustMonthWeek NumberPhase of Season51 5223 45O-SCamp/ExhibitionS/P/HPosition SpecificPeriodized CycleTraining Type1September67October8November DecemberJanuaryFebruary9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27MarchMayPlay-OffsMacro Cycle 3Macro Cycle 2AprilJulyOff-SeasonMacro Cycle 4 In-Season Strength Injury Prevention June28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50Regular Season Maintenance Taper Program Macro Cycle 1 Hypertrophy, Strength, & Power Refer Below for Training PhasesMesocycle CHL Prospects (All-Star) GameEliminated 1st RdEliminated in QtrsEliminated in Semi'sProjected Off-Season Phase Start DatesEliminated in League FinalsMemorial Cup FinalistMarch 16th, end of regular SeasonMay 16th - 25th National ChampionshipsTransition dates between Macro Cycles 4 and 1 are based on team play-off qualification and elimination. Teams not qualifying for play-offs will begin their off-seasonup to 8 weeks before the Memorial Cup champions. Training Cycle lengths must be modified to reflect the end of the athlete's competitive season.Furrther, athlete specific needs analysis and post-season performance assessment will determine the length the athlete spends working towards specific training adaptations.In addition, elite Canadian Junior players fortunate enough to be selected for National team play (various domestic and international) will change training period lengthsand demands. All of these factors must be considered by the strength and conditioning coach - the above is a general program, from which specific adaptationscan be made.Training Plan LegendPlayer Testing and AssessmentRest / Recovery phaseHypertrophy TrainingBeginning of Tapering PeriodIntroductory Resistance ProgramTable 3.0 outlines 4 ‘Marco’ training cycleswithin the training year. The followingdiscussion will identify the training programStrength TrainingPower & Endurance TrainingHockey Specific On-Ice and Dry-Land ConditioningBeginning of Tapering PeriodIntroductory Resistance Programmodality differences and program designvariables characteristic to each cycle, and will4

Eric MacLeanA Theoretical Review of the Physiological Demands of Ice Hockey attempt to provide a theoretical justification fortheir inclusion.The concept of periodization is used inefforts of working towards peaking in aerobicand anaerobic capacity and muscular strength,power, and endurance at the start of the inseason, and maintaining those peak, and highpercentages of those peak values throughout theentire in-, and post-season (14), whileminimizing inter and intra game fatigue (4).Ice Hockey full-season conditioning beginswith the start of training camp, identified asMacro Cycle 1, and ‘Week 1’ in Table 3.0.The purpose of training camp is to preparethe athlete for competitive performance.Training camp is characterized by athleteassessment, and on-ice performance.Rosene (22) suggests that preseasonassessments have become an integral part of anathlete’s preparation for the upcomingcompetitive season, as they for the basis ofphysiologic performance assessment.Green et al. (13) suggest that both on- andoff-ice physiological testing should focus onaerobic capacity, blood lactate, and bodycomposition evaluation, Rosene (22) suggeststhat strength testing also be included.The pre-season testing results are thereference point. It should be expected that theathlete possess their highest strength measuresduring pre-season.Table 4.0 contains a summary of physicaltests that are recommended to assess the preseason athlete’s physiological attributes.Table 4.0Preseason Strength & Conditioning Assessment Battery1. Anthrometric Measurements2. Strength Measurements3. Anaerobic Measurements4. Aerobic MeasurementsHeightWeightBody fat %Bench press - body weight x 5 repsWingate (peak anaerobic power)Vertitcal JumpStanding Long Jumptraditional 1RM testing. For the bench press it isrecommended that all players be required topress 200lbs many times as possible, and 450lbsused for the leg press.Players are measured for standing verticaljump, and standing long jump as these tests areconsidered to be effective field tests to providebase line data regarding short-term, explosive,anaerobic power (22).The strength and conditioning coach canassist the coaching staff about decisions madeabout player’s ability based on their pre-seasontesting performance. By comparing athleteresults to published performance correlations(Table 1.0,) the work of Green et al. (13) thestrength coach can assess strength and weaknesscharacteristics.Pre-Season Conditioning RecommendationsPre-season resistance training programs arerecommended to be designed to maximizestrength gains yet allow for adequate recoverybased on the training schedule (22).Training camp is consistent with a heavytraining schedule; practices, split squad andexhibition games, team meetings, travel time,and off-ice conditioning, so it is imperative thatthe practicing strength coach communicate thetraining needs associated with pre-seasonpreparation, and the coach’s athlete trainingdemand expectations. It is only after the strengthcoach has a working knowledge of the athlete’sschedule, that they can effectively integrateresistance and cardiovascular training sessions.Table 5.0 outlines the base pre-season resistancetraining program.Table 5.0Sample Pre-Season Resistance Training ProgramTotal Body StrengthAll Pre-SeasonExerciseVolume(Sets x Reps)Maximal Oxygen ConsumptionReference: Rosene, John M. In-Season, Off-Ice Conditioning for Minor League ProfessionalIce Hockey Players. Strength and Conditioning Journal . 2002. 24(1). 22-28.Due to the favorability of absolute strengthand muscular power and endurance rather thanrelative strength, it is recommended that athletetesting include multiple repetition bench pressand leg press exercises. Rosene (22) suggeststhat multiple repetition testing reduces the stressdisplaced on the joints and musculoskeletalsystem in relation to the stresses incurred fromWarm-Up (Jog or Bike)10 minsFlat Bench3 x 6-8Lat Pull-Downs3 x 6-8Seated Dumbbell Shoulder Press3 x 6-8Shoulder Shrugs3 x 6-8Squats3 x 6-8Biceps Curls3 x 6-8Triceps Push-Downs3 x 6-8Abdominal CrunchesBack Extensions2 x 753 x 12-155

Eric MacLeanA Theoretical Review of the Physiological Demands of Ice Hockey The set and repetition ratio is set at 3, and 68, in efforts of developing peak muscularstrength. Relative training loads are to be set atapproximately 80-85% of 1RM values.The pre-season resistance training programencourages the athlete to lift heavy resistance asquickly as possible. Increased movementvelocity, mimics sport tasks, and in theory, willassist in the development of the athlete’s rate offorce development and overall power output,contributing to the goal of the pre-season indeveloping peak strength and power profiles.Aerobic and anerobic energy systemdevelopment is also integrated into the preseason phase. While the athlete will be engagedin significant on-ice skating drills designed toprepare the physiologic demands ofperformance, it is highly recommended that theathlete participate in high intensity cycling twicea week.High intensity interval training is designedto target the oxidative, glycolytic, andphosphagen energy systems, with the intent ofenhancing their efficiency and co-activation.Table 6.0 is a sample high intensity intervalcycle program designed to induce a metabolicadaptive response favoring enhanced aerobic andanaerobic capacity.Rosene (22) recommends that participationin the interval cycling session be at a localcommunity training facility, as it is a means forteam bonding, and for exposure to the local fanbase. Distraction of this nature has the ability toprovide the athlete with a way of enjoying thevolume and magnitude of physical trainingendured during the course of the pre-season.Table 6.0 is a sample 1 week pre-seasontraining expectations model. It outlines thevolume of physical activity demandscharacteristic of this phaseSample Pre-Season High Intensity Interval Cycle Training ProgramTimeIntensity0 - 0:30RPM 150 all out0:30 - 1:301:30 - 2:002:00 - 3:003:00 - 3:303:30 - 4:304:30 - 5:005:00 - 6:00RPM 90 at 85% HRRPM 150 all outRPM 90 at 80% HRRPM 150 all outRPM 90 at 80% HRRPM 150 all outRPM 90 at 80% HR6:00 - 6:30RPM 150 all out6:30 - 7:30RPM 90 at 80% HR7:30 - 8:00RPM 150 all out8:00 - 9:00RPM 90 at 80% HR9:00 - 9:30RPM 150 all out9:30 - 11:30RPM 90 at 80% HR11:30 - 12:00RPM 150 all out12:00 - 14:00RPM 90 at 80% HR14:00 - 14:30RPM 150 all out14:30 - 16:30RPM 90 at 80% HR16:30 - 17:00RPM 150 all out17:00 - 19:30RPM 90 at 80% HR19:30 - 20:00RPM 120 all out20:00 - 22:00RPM 90 at 80% HR22:00 - 22:30RPM 120 all out22:30 - 24:30RPM 90 at 80% HR24:30 - 25:00RPM 120 all out25:00 - 27:00RPM 90 at 80% HRRPM 120 all out27:00 - 27:3027:30 - 29:30RPM 90 at 80% HR29:30 - 30:00RPM 120 all outCool DownRPM 90, easy paceA warm-up is performed so that the Heart Rate is at80% of age-predicted maximum or 80% of Hrmax asdetermined on a VO2max test. Once 80% Max isreached, interval program begins.Reference: Rosene, John M. In-Season, Off-Ice Conditioning for MinorLeague Professional Ice Hockey Players. Strength and Conditioning Journal .2002. 24(1). 22-28.Table 6.0Sample Pre-Season Weekly Training Expectations urdayHeavy ResistanceMorning SkateMorning SkateHeavy ResistanceHigh Intensity IntervalMorning SkateMorning SkateTrainingSkill / System PracticePracticeTrainingCycle ClassGroup High IntensityAfternoon SplitExhibition GameAfternoon PracticeExhibition GameExhibition GameInterval Cycle ClassSquad ScrimmageAfternoon SplitSquad Scrimmage6

Eric MacLeanA Theoretical Review of the Physiological Demands of Ice Hockey In-Season Conditioning RecommendationsIn-SeasonAs the athlete transitions from pre-season toin-season competition and the associated changein physical demands, their resistance andcardiovascular training programs musttransitions to reflect this change.The athlete must no longer be concernedabout developing an increase in muscularstrength, power, or energy system capacity,rather to maintain the physiological abilitiesdeveloped through the off-, and in-seasons.As with the scheduling demands of the preseason, the in-season is characteristic of similarscheduling difficulties. Travel, game, practice,and for some, high school academic schedulesmake it difficult to adhere to a consistent trainingregimen.Table 7.0 is a sample 2 week training cycleof the in-season.Table 7.0A Sample 2 Week Training Cycle During the In-Season of A Canadian Junior Hockey AthleteWeek 1SundayThursdayFridayHigh IntensityGameTotal Body DynamicGameInterval Ride(10-20 min postStrength Training(10-20 min postProgramgame ride)MondayTuesdayWednesdayOff-DayGameHeavy Resistance(On-Ice Practice)Post Game WorkoutTraining Programgame ride)SaturdayModerate IntervalCycleFlexibility TrianingFlexibility TrainingFlexibility TrainingSundayMondayTuesdayGameOff DayPost Game Workout(On-Ice Practice)Flexibility TrainingFlexibility TrainingFlexibility TrainingFlexibility TrainingWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturdayTotal Body DynamicGameHeavy ResistanceGameGameStrength Training(10-20 min postTraining Program(10-20 min post(10-20 min postgame ride)game ride)Flexibility TrainingFlexibility TrainingWeek 2game ride)High IntensityModerate IntensityInterval RideFlexibility TrainingFlexibility TrainingFlexibility TrainingReview of this sample training cycle it canbe noticed that there are several different trainingprograms; each with specific program designs,incorporated into the athlete’s trainingprogramming.Successful ice hockey performance requirespeak muscular strength and power efforts, andenergetic system efficiency. For these abilitiesto be maintained throughout the season, theymust be continuously worked within a frequencythat allows for adequate neuromuscular recoveryto avoid neurological and physical fatigue.Muscular strength and endurance ismaintained through participation in a heavyresistance training program, where the trainingload is set at 70-85% of 1RM values, and thevolume is relatively high for the training load,set at 2 sets of 10-12 reps. This high trainingvolume and training load is intended to maintainthe high strength and muscular enduranceprofiles assessed during pre-season anddeveloped over the off-season.In addition, a ‘dynamic strength’ trainingprogram is integrated into the in-season trainingregimen intended to increase joint stability, andTraining RideFlexibility TrainingFlexibility Trainingmuscular power. Utilizing the principles ofplyometic movement techniques, and complextraining, the dynamic strength program isdesigned to enhance and maintain peak power,and joint stability strength.Tables 8.0 and 9.0 are example In-SeasonHeavy Resistance and Dynamic Strength trainingprogrammes.Table 8.0In-Season Heavy Resistance Training ProgramStart of Season to All-Star Break ( Sept 21st - Jan 18th, 2008)Training load should be set at 80-85% of 1RM, where each rep is completedthrough a 4-1-2-1 eccentric to concentric tempo. Completing full setsbefore moving to next exercise. Exercises are to be completed in theorder listed.ExercisesWarm-Up (Bike or Jog)VolumeLoadSets x Reps% 1RM10 minsBench Press2 x 10-1280-85Lat Pull Downs2 x 10-1275-80Seated Dumbbell Shoulder Press2 x 10-1270-75Shoulder Shrugs2 x 10-1270-75Back Squats2 x 10-1280-85Biceps Curl (vary technique/dumbbell or barbell)2 x 10-1275-80Triceps Extensions (vary the technique)2 x 10-1275-80Abdominal Crunches (vary the tecniques2 x 10-12N/ABack Extensions2 x 10-12BW7

Eric MacLeanA Theoretical Review of the Physiological Demands of Ice Hockey Table 10.0Table 9.0Sample In-

hockey strength and conditioning professional with a research supported hockey practical hockey conditioning reference. Energy Systems Time motion analysis conducted by Green et al. (11), and Twist and Rhodes (30,31) indicates that a typical shift lasts approximately 30-80 seconds, and is followed immediately by 4 to 5