Martin Luther: TheProtestant ReformationThe Protestant Reformation1300 – 1570 CE1
Who was Martin Luther? Born in Germany in1483. After surviving aviolent storm, hevowed to become amonk. Lived in the city ofWittenberg. Died in 1546.
DefinitionsProtestTo express strongobjectionReformTo improve bycorrecting errors
Problems in the Church Corruption Political Conflicts
Corruption The Churchraised moneythroughpractices likesimony andsellingindulgences.Simony:the act of selling church offices and roles.
What happens to spark theReformation? Pope Leo Xneeds moneyto build St.Peter’sBasilica sohe sellsindulgences!Vatican City
Advantages of BuyingIndulgencesGo Directly to Heaven! Do not go to Hell! Do not go to Purgatory! Get through Purgatory faster! Do not pass Go!
Political ConflictKINGS ANDQUEENSPOPES
Papal SchismRomeAvignon In 1301, the king tried to tax the French clergy. The pope threatened to excommunicate the king andso was arrested. He was later released. The next pope, Clement V, moved the headquartersof the Church from Rome to Avignon in southernFrance. Many people felt that the French kings controlled theChurch.
Three Popes! The next six popes lived in Avignon. PopeGregory then moved the papacy back toRome in 1377. When Gregory died, the French cardinalsdid not like the new pope in Rome, so theyelected a different pope in Avignon. Later, a Church council elected a thirdpope.
Calls for Reform John Wycliffe (1330-1384)– Questioned the authority ofthe pope Jan Hus (1370-1415)– Criticized the vast wealth ofthe Church Desiderius Erasmus (14691536)– Attacked corruption in theChurch
Luther Looks for Reforms Luther criticized Churchpractices, like sellingindulgences. He wanted to begin adiscussion within theChurch about the truepath to salvation. He nailed his NinetyFive Theses, orarguments, to the doorof Wittenberg cathedralfor all to see.
Protestant Teaching:Justification by Faith Alone The Bible is theonly source oftruth. People can readand understandthe Biblethemselves.Luther’s Bible Salvation comesonly throughfaith in Christ.
Excommunication Pope Leo X demanded that Luther recant 41of his Ninety-Five Theses. Luther was brought before the Diet ofWorms. In January 1521, Luther wasexcommunicated from the Church.
The Printing Press Luther’s ideas spreadquickly with the help ofthe printing press. Luther’s supportersdistributed copies ofhis speeches andessays far and wide. Millions of people sidedwith Luther against theRoman CatholicChurch.
Language Barriers Most uneducated people didn’tunderstand Latin, but knew the localcommon language or “vernacular”.– Almost all Bibles were written inLATIN before the Reformation. It was the job of the church clergy totranslate the Bible to lay people.
A New Church Luther soon had manyfollowers. His supporters began toorganize a new Christiandenomination. Several German princessupported Luther. Lutherans and Catholicsfought each other. The first wars ended with theTreaty of Augsburg, butfighting in Europe overreligion continued to the midseventeenth century.Saint Bartholomew’sDay massacrein 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence,directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) during the French Wars ofReligion.
Lutheranism Luther’s followersdisagreed with manyof the teachings ofthe Catholic Church. They rejected theauthority of Churchcouncils and thepope. Reading the Biblewas the only way tolearn how to lead agood life.Luther translatedthe Bible intoGerman
The Reformation spread toother countries. France and Switzerland:John Calvin preached theidea of “predestination”and that some peoplehad been chosen by Godfor salvation. England:King Henry VIII refused torecognize the RomanCatholic Church andstarted a new church, theChurch of England.
In England, theReformation began with theKing! King Henry VIII–The king who had six wives He wants a SON!Lines provided in notes towrite down story of KingHenry VIII.
The ReformationParliament Was a gathering that led to the decision thatEngland was no longer under the authorityof the pope. Act of Supremacy– Subjects were required to take an oathdeclaring Henry VIII to be “SupremeHead of the Church of England”
Longstanding Effects of Henry VIII His legitimate children: Mary, Elizabeth, andEdward (dies).– Queen Mary I or “Bloody Mary” Raised Catholic like her mother Catherineof Aragon; she reestablished the CatholicChurch in England. She killed manyprotestants and had approximately 300heretics burned at the stake.– Queen Elizabeth I (Ends the House of Tudor) Raised Protestant and ruled England for44 years. Ruled during the SpanishArmada, and never married known as theVirgin Queen.
New Sects Spread
The Effectsof theReformation
Catholic Reformation Ignatius of Loyola - Started the Jesuits Goals: Education, spread Catholicism, stopProtestantismPope Paul III (1534-1549) 1. Investigated abuses2. Approved Jesuits3. Inquisition4. Called for Council of Trent
The Inquisition - a Catholic judicial systemdesigned to prosecute heretics
Council of Trent 1545-1563 - when church officials agreedon reforms/doctrines1. Church interpretation of bible was final2. Faith and good works for salvation3. Bible and Church tradition equallyimportant4. Indulgences were valid but false sellingwas banned
Council of Trent Index ofForbiddenbooks 10,000 booksburned inone day inVenice a
The six wives of Henry VIII1. Catherine of Aragon - Divorced - Child:Mary2. Anne Bolyen - Beheaded - Child: Elizabeth3. Jane Seymour - Died - Child: Edward VI4.Anne of Cleves - Divorced - Child: None5. Catherine Howard - Beheaded - Child:None6.Catherine Parr - Survived (Henry diedfirst) - Child:None
England During and After HenryVIII Religious turmoil during reign ofEdward VI (Protestant) and Mary I(Catholic)Elizabeth I inherited throne in 1558Re-established Anglican churchCompromised between Catholics andProtestants
Long Live the Queen!
Spanish Armada Philip II of Spain to attack England onJuly 29, 1558Spanish Armada - 130 ships, 8,000sailors, 19,000 soldiersEngland defeated Spain“Protestant winds”
Effects of the ReformationFranceSt. Bartholomew Day MassacreFrench calvinists calledHuguenots were killed for theirbeliefsEdict of NantesHuguenots were granted rightsby Henry IV
Legacy of The Reformation:Big ideas1. Religion no longer unitedEurope2. Growth of monarchs andmodern nation states over theChurch3. Groundwork for the rejectionof Christian beliefs andcontinued questioning of theworld around us
A New Church Luther soon had many followers. His supporters began to organize a new Christian denomination. Several German princes supported Luther. Lutherans and Catholics fought each other. The first wars ended with the Treaty of Augsburg, but fighting in Europe over