Transcription

\iocootwanon.ED .145 705-008 977AUTHORTITLEde la Cruz, aeato A.; Zorc, R. Da d Paul .A Study of th'e Aklanon Dialect. Vo ume One;INSTITUTIONGrammar.Peace Corps, Washington, D.C.PUB' DATE68NOTE230p.; For related document see FL d08 976 ; Best \\INcopy available\-EDRS PRICE.DESCRIPTORSIDENTIFIERS-NF-40.83 HC-S12.7141us Postage.,Adjectives; Adverbs ; *Dialect Studies; Fora Classes(Languages); FunotiOn Words; .*Gramiar;nstructionalMaterials; Language. Instruction; Langua e Patterns;Language Research; Language Usage; *Bala o PolynesianLanguages; Norphologyi(Lanquages); Morph phonemicstNominals; Phonology; *Second Language Le ruing;*Uncommonly Taught Languages; Verbs*Aklanon; Philippines.rt"!,'ABSTRACT-The purposes of. this graimar of Aklanon at(1)pi6vide teachers withia sourcebook on their dialect, so th t thevcanunderstand the formalities of Aklanon; (2j provide foreign learners"-,of the dialect, paiticularly Peace Corps volunteers or. mis ionaries,with a reference grammar; and.(3) provide linguists -with a treatmentof an unresearched dialect. The grammar is divided into the following-mix ;lilts: (1) "Preliminary Remarks on Aklanon "; (2) "Phonoliogy, TheSignificant Sounds of the Aklanon Dialect";' (3) "LinguisticBackground"; (4) "Norphophonemics in Aklanon"; (5) "The Baiie Partsof Speech "; and (6) Function Words. The grammar is followed 1 y a'bibliography of lilNuistic and dialect study books. **************************Documents acquired by ERIC include many informal unpublished* materials not available from other sources. ERIC-makes every effort ** to obtain the best copy available. Nevertheless, items of marginal ** reproducibility are often encountered and this affects the quality** of the microfiche and hardcopy reproductions ERIC makes available** via the ERIC Docuient Reproduction Service (EDRS) . EDRS is not* responsible for the quality of the original document. Reproductions ** supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made from the *******************************

A STUDY OF THE AKLANON DIALECTITVolunfe Oneg-ge.,era!, ATaItj;,1tIBeato A. de is Cruz, M.A.; rd.r.BLER David Paul Zorcs A.B.Ltngizge Coordinatoz,estern Visayes RegionUnited States Peace CorpsAklan,.Philippmez[Linguistic Informant]Acitilt and Community Ed.icatiiox.Supervisor r,Bureau of: Public SchoolsManila, Philippines.[Aklanon Inforrns.niAkian196;1Public Domainr.I1,,tfI fr.,&U S DEPARTMENT OF HEALT4EDUCATION & WELFARENATIONAL INSTITUTE OFEDUCATIONrIrirr.T1r,'.r; jit11Cit. DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRO.'E0 EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM.4' PERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIGINA TING IT POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONSSTATED DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT OFFICIAL NATIONAL INSTITUTC OFEOUCAT ON POSITION OR POLICY

APPROVED FOR PRINTINGFirst Endorsement, for Peace Corps25 April 1968Tommy R. dersonFord Foundation ConsultantPhilippine Normal CollegeManila, PhilippinesSecond Endorsement, by Peace Corps3 May 1968Theresa A. BoucherLanguage OfficerPeace Corps'Manila, PhilippinesNo part'of this book should be copied, printed or otherwisereproduced without the explicit permission of the authors,except for purposes of criticism or review.This hook is the result of a non-profit project for the benefitof teachers in the province of Aldan and for the instruction ofU. S. Peace Corps volunteers and other interested parties.The purchaser is warned that the publication cost of this bookis not to exceed- either P 4.70 per copy [Philippine currency] 1.20 per copy Kinked States currency]orexcluding any costs for postage or handling.

SO.PREFACI3,'.The purposes for this study are &de-fold: (I) To provide teachers with a sourcebook- ontheir dialect; so that they can uncierstanc the fOrmalities of Aklanon. With supplementary seminaxsand workshops, it is hoped that-tnore concise and efficient curriculum guides can beprepared for the teaching of the vernacular. Up to the present time there has been' much disagreement abot : such problems as the spelling of the vernacular, and it is hoped that conventions can be established about the dialect through thegency of this present study. (2)- Toprovide foreign learners of the dialect, particularly Peace Corps Volunteers or missionaries,with a reference grammar,. coveringthe peculiarities of the sound and structure of Aklanonspeech. (3) To provide linguists with a treatment, however basic or humble, of a hithertounresearched dia1 eeu and hence to enrich the catalogue of literature available on the lessknown languages or dialects of the world.s is an unfinished andjunending work, a part of an onLike any paper or publication,going and growing process. The particular organization or explanation of the phenomena' ofthe Aklan dialect could very well be debated and changed. No doubt, as time gees on and interest-in the dialect deielops, subsequent works.will be publish4i and may surpass this paper.This is not, then, to be considered -- either by the authors or by the readers--as a finishedtreatise or an absolute statement about the Aklanon dialect; particularly since the edition is --'/the result of much hurried effort to meet a deadline and other requirement's.Tnis grammar will not be easy to read--as no grammar is easy to read. It has not beesmade to be difficult, although it has been made to be thorough. The reader does net have tocome to this book sophisticated in linguistic techniques, -but if he keeps with it, he should leavewith a good deal, of soPhisticatibn; not only about Aklanon, but about linoistie methods as well.The study is presented in the light of the above - mentioned. purposes and qualifications in the'hope that it may encourage those who absob it to make their own personal 7analysis of the vernacular, for it is only in personal struggle that tinderatanding and knowledge are found. Theauthors trust, then, that it will fill the explicit and projected ncekis of the province of Aklan,the U.S. Peace Corps, and any other similar interested parties.The authors wish to acknowledge gratefully the help of the following:Dr. Tommy Anderson of Philippine Normal College for his invaluable linguistic help in proofreading and editing this paper, whO is greatly responsible for the present format and a gdodmany ideaS contained herein.The United States Peace Corps for its total support of this project, particularly in the personsof: Dr. Richard Wilson, Mr. John Bossany, Mr. Allan Kulakow, Mrs. Theresa Boucher andMr. Charles Shackelton. The Bureau of Public Schools, Manila in-the person of its directcr.Juan C. Manuel for their support.Mayor Federico 0. Icamina and the Municipal Council of Kalibo, who helped in a previousmimeographed edition of this text.Prof John U. Wolff of-Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, who gave several suggestions'for various articles in this paper.Mr. Stephen J. Banta, Peace Corps Volunteer in Kalibo, for proof-reading the entire text andfor suggestions about its format. Mr.Thumas C. Marshall, past Peace Corps in Bongo, Aklan,for helping in preliminary research of the dialect.The various citizens of Aklan, for their informant work, gi ten freely and continually throughout the long period of Vier book's composition--to whom this book is heartily dedicated.THE AUTHORS4/

A STUDY OF THE AKLANON DIALECT, Volume One--GRAMMARPAGEOUTLINE:UNIT ONE: PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON AKLANON1,1. LOCATION OF AKLANON.2. CHART: THE MALAYO-POLYNESIAN FAMILY OF LANGUAGES.3. REFLEX SOUNDS IN CURRENT WEST-VISAYAN DIALECTS.4. CHART: COMPARATIVE WORD LIST OF CURRENT WEST/VISAYAN DIALECTS.1123,5. OTHER SIMILARITIES OF AKLANONTO THE OTHER WESTVISAYAN DIALECTS3.6. THE VOICED VELARTRICATIVE.7. THE THREE DIMENSIONS OF AKLANON SPEECH.1. The Dialectal Dimension2. The Age Dimension \3. The Prestige DimensionUNIT TWO: PHONOLOGY, THE SIGNIFICANT SOUNDS OF THEAKLANON DIALECT1. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.2. STOPS.1. /p/2. II3/3. It/4. /c1/5. /k/6. /g/7. /t/ [glottal stop]Note: Three final vowel sounds.3. FRICATIVES.1.2. /v/3. /s/Note: [sh] allophone.4. dI [voiced velar fricative]/h/4. AFFRICATES.1. ,/c/2. /j/77888899910101112121213131314151616175. NASALS.181. /m/2. /n/18,183. Mg/184. Minimal Pairs Based on the. Various Nasal Sounds5r-s556.8. SUMMARY.5.519

PAGE206. LATERAL./1/7. FLAP.218. SEMIVOWELS OR VOCOIDS.232323242525/r/1. /w/2. /y/9. VOWELS.1. /i/2. At/3. /a/4. /u/26275. /o/Observations on /u/-/o/ alternations.-10. DIPHTHONGS.11. CONSONANT CHART.12. VOWEL CHART.13. STRESS.14. PITCH.15., SOME NOTES ON STANDARD AKLANON SPELLING.VowelsConsonants: [native][boirowed]Foreign Letters borrowed in Aklanon script and their-pronucCiatiOn16. SOME PROBLEMS WITH REGARD TO AKLANON SPELLING.1. The Glottal Stop2. The Consonant "e" versus the Vowel "e"3. The "o"-"u" Spelling ProblemUNIT THREE: LINGUISTIC BACKGROUND341. NEED FOR RIGOR.2. PHONES.3. PHONEMES.4. ALLOPHONES.34343434'5. FROM SOUNDS TO WORDS.353535 36363737376. MORPHS.7. ALLONORPHS AND MORPHEMES.8. EXAMPLES OF MORPHEMES.9. HOMOPHONES. .10. WORD BASES OR ROOT WORDS.I2728293030303132323232323232323311. AFFIXES.1. Prefixes2. Infixes3. Suffixes12. MORPHOPI IONE MICSU373838

PAGE39UNIT FOUR: MORPHOPHONEMICS IN AKLANON1. STRESS CHANGE.1." /a/ is lost.3939393940402. /i/ is changed to /y4403. /0/ is changed to 7w/.40.11. Differences of parts of speech.2. Affixes that carry stress.3. Suffixation influences stress.2. VOWEL CHANGE.3. VOWEL LOSS.A. ASSIMILATION.40414141424242ss1; /ng/ assimilates to /m/before /b/.2. /ng/ assimilates to /n/ before /d, X/.3. /ng/ retains its quality before /k,g,g,h,'/.5. CONSONANT REDUCTION.1. /p, b/ are lost altering/ assimilates to /m/,2. /d, t, s/ are lost after /ng/ assimilates to /n/.3. /k,'/ are lost after /ng/ in many instances.4243434343444444444445454545, 456. CONTRACTION.1. ma is lost.,2. r/ is lost.3. Contraction of function marker phrases.7. CONSONANT CHANGE.1. /d/ changes to In at the end of the root word.2. /d/ clianges to /r/ at the beginning of the root word.3. /d/ can change to 41/.,4. /g/ changes to /1/.5. /g/ changes to /y/,8. METATHESIS.I. General occurances.2. Change of /g/ to /1/ witlymetathesis.'69. CONSONANT GENIINATION:.10. REDUPLICATION.1. "Primitive words".2. 'Full reduplication.3. Reduplication of the first syllable (-CIV1-).4. Reduplication of the first vowel with the /g/-infix, /01/,5. /Citii(0)-/ reduplication as prefix.,6. Reduplication of nasal and first vowel after /mang-/.ti447\48484949UNIT FIVE: THE BASIC PARTS OF SPEECH50A. WHAT IS GRAMMAR?501. WORD ORDER.2. PROSODY.3. FUNCTION WORDS.4. INFLECTIONS.50515153- iv -7

53545. DERIVATIONAL CONTRAST.Y.6. SU55LAR VERBB. THE1. THEO Y.1.oral verbs.2. Fo1 Definition.3. Ho ophou.c verb class.SSSS."-4.,57575758 8594. Syntactic DefinitionS. 'Verb determiners.6. General survey.2. TIME.1. Aspect.6060606161', 6262636364.64(1)* the real aspect(2). the unreal aspect2. Tense.\(1) the imperfective(2) the perfective(3) the expected or,intentional(4) the future(5) the subjunctive(6) the dependent form(7) the past conditioned form(8) the future conditioned form(9) the participle form3. Summary: Time and the AklanOn verb3. MOOD OR mom:.1. The simple mood.2. The ability or optative mood.3. The accidental mood.4. a The imperative mood. - polite commands- negative commands4. ROLE.SITUATIONAL DETAILS1. Types of roles.(1) actors(2) instruments\(3) companions and/or concomitants(4) direct objects or goals(5) indirect objects or beneficiaries2. Situational roles, grunmatical,roles, and focus.5. It//'S.,1. Stress in language.2. Stress through focus in Aklanon.3. General explanation of focus.4. The representative focuses in Aklanon.The representative verb form for each 7575767677

PAGE5. The uses of the funCtion markers.6. Role distribution among the four different focus groups.(1) actor focus is used to put emphasis on:- the main actor or subject of the clause(2) instrument focus is used to put emphasis on:- the instrument used in performing the action- the companion or concomitant in the actionan object which is conveyed or changed by an action- a verbal conveyance- special benefaction- a special time, which is as yet unreal- the reason or cause of-an action.(3) object focus is used to put emphasis on:- the direct object or goal of an action(4) referent focus Is used to put emphasis on:- the place, site or locality of an action- the indirect object- the beneficiary- tba partitive objectthe person or thing affected by an action- an indirect-cause or reason of an action- nouns or adjectives which are used 'verbally7. Focus in Aklanon is not the same as voice in English(1) de-emphaEils of subject versus stress on object(2) tremendous emphasis to subject versus tremendousemphasis to object(3) two types of voice versus four types of focus(4) difference in idiom8. A paradigm.9. An analogy explaining focus.10. Use of focus is a matter of style.11. A command of focus is crucial.6. SOME NOTES ON VERB STEM CLASSIFICATION .1. Maas I of regular verbs.2. Class II of regular verbs.3. Class III of regular verbs.4. Class IV of regular verbs.S. Class V of regular verbs.6. Class VI of regular verbs.7. Class VII at regular verbs.8. Class VIII of regular verbs.9g Claes IX of regular \9292927. VERBAL INFLECTION.1. By way of review.2; Explanation of the inflection chart.3. Verbal inflection chart.vi97793939495

PAGE4. Analysis and diagramming of verbs.5. A more simple system of diagramming.8. QUALITY IN VERBS.fia. GENERAL QUALITY.8b. CAUSATIVE QUALITY.9697991. The meaning of causatives in Aklanon.2. Causatives in English.3. Role distribution in Aklanon causative sentences.(1) causers(2) agents4. The uses of the function markers with causatives.(1) actor focus and causative constructions(2) instrument focus and causative constructions(3) object focus and causative constructions(4) referent-focus and causative constructions5. A paradigm.6. Diagramming-of causative statements.7. Idiomatic use of the 1pa- causative prefix.8c. DISTRIBUTIVE QUALITY.1. The meaning of distributives in Aklanon.(1) distribution of timeor object(2) local idiom; process verbs(3) goal r object expressed in the verb stem2. Role distr ution and focus inliklanon distributive sentences3. Examples and dia amming of distributive statements4. Distributi e for distinguished from instrumental gerund forms9. OTHER .yE CLASSES OR MODES.1. The man - verb class.(1) diagramming and examples(2) nominal form of the mang- verb class.2. The maging- verb class.3. The mag- relationship conjugation.(1) members of the class(2) examples of the class4. The makipag- reciprocal conjugation.5. The -in- infix verb class.6. The Jta- postpositive prefix .7. The ja(cI)- directional prefix.10. OTHER VERB QUALIFIERS1. The jka - postpositive prefix.2. The jsi- postpositive prefix.3. The -gV1- progressive infix.4. The -in- intensive infik.5. Theintensive infix.6. The -C1V1- diminuative infix.7. Summa.y chart of verbal 12113114115116117117117118118119119119vii -104,01

PAGE120C. THE STATIVE VERBS1201211211211211221. THEORY.2. CLASS I OF STATIVE VERBS.1. The-liflectici of Class I.2. The Members of Class I.-3. Examples of Class I.3. CLASS Ill OF STATIVE VERBS.1221. The Inflection of Class II.2. The Members of Classil.3. Examples of Class II.12312312312412412S12512S4. CLASS III OF STATIVE VERBS.1. The Inflection of Class HI.2. Members ci Class M.3. Examples of Class III.--5. CLASS IV OF THE STATIVE VERBS.1. The Inflection of Class IV.1261262. Members of alms IV.3. Examples of Claim6. CLASS V OF STA.IVVERBS.1. The Inflection of Class V Referent Statics.2. The Members of Lass V.a V.3: Examples of7. TIM lag- STATIVE\VERB QUAWIER.1. The Inflection of erbs *with the .Itsr Qualifier.2. Examples of the Stative Qualifier's Usage.08. STATIVE ROOTS AS OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH.i\1. Stative Nouns.2. Stative Adjectives.;3. Regular Verbs.-D. SUBSTANTIVES: NOUNS AND NOMMALS1. THEORY.1. Natural Nouns. \ ,,,(1) names of4perions(2) names of places(3) names of things.2. Homophonic Now Class.3. Formal Definition.(1) pluralization with mie(2) noun-determining function words(3) the function markerti2. STANDARD NOUN - MARKING DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES.1. Note tn Stress within noun forms.2. The Simple Root-Word Noun Class.(1) basic root words(2) foreign-borrowed words(3) archaic nub -cla 0130131131131131132132133133133133133f34

.-.(4) reduplicated words(5) noun roots with I-an suffix .(6) noun roots with -01- reduplication-infix and -an suffix(7) noun roots with -01-, reduplication-infix and -on suffix(8) noun roots with -in- infix and -an suffix(9) noun roots with the simple -in,infix.-infix(10) nouns with the diminuative reduplication (Clug(o)-.--J3. The pag- Noun Class.(1) nouns with pag(2) nouns with pagka4. The pang- Noun ClasS.(1) simple pang(2) nouns with panga-1sc(3) nouns with pani(ng)(4) nouns with panghi(ng)5. The Occupational Noun Class.(1) nouns with manV N(2) nouns with manor(3) nouns with mag- C V 1A. (4) nouns with makes - 1V115) nouns with -urn-V 1g(6) nouns with ii22c(7)\ nouns with pang6. Thellelationship Ncun Class.(1) 'nouns with mag(2) nouns with ig:(3) nouns with isigka7. The Ica?. Noun Class.\.137137138138138138138138138139139(1) nouns with ka-(2) nouns with The ka- prefix and -an suffix .(3) nouns with the ka- prefix and -anon suffix(4) nouns with the ka- prefix and -on suffix(5) nouns with the kina- prefix(6) nouns with the kasi(ng)- prefix8. The pa-,(Causative] Noun Class.(1) nouns with simple pa(2) nouns with paka(3) nouns with pina(4) nouns with paea(5) nouns with paki:.(6) nouns with pakig-9. The ta- Noun Class.(1) nouns with the tags- prefix'(2) nouns with the tag- prefix(3) the tag- 139139140140(4) the liF: prefixix -

3. FUNCTION WORDS.1. Function Markers.2. Other Types of Function Words.3. Finding the Types of Function Words.4. The Topic Slot.(1) comnon nouns(2) personal names(3) pronouns(4) deictics(5) function nouns5. Finding the other Slots or Uses of Function Words.(1) the associative slot(2) the referent slot(3), the object slot6. Coinplete Chart of Function Words in Aklanon4. SUBSTANTIVES USEDIN FOCUS CONSTRUCTIONS.1. Chart:, Role Distribution Among Substantives.2. ,Simple Noun Phrases, and the Function Markers.(1) substantive-making quality of the function markers(2) the uses of the topic markers(3) the basic Aklanon sentence(4) the uses of the associate markers(5) the use of the object marker(6) the use of the referent markers3. Expanded Noun Phrases.(1) statements of possession(2) linkers(3) spatial relators4. The Pronoun System.(1) the topic pronouns(2) the associate pronouns(3) the referent pronouns5. The Deictics.(1) the topic deictics(2) the associate deictics(3) the referent deictiCs6. Function Noun 571581601611615. SUBSTANTIVES USED IN NON-FOCUS CONSTRUCTIONS .1. Attributive Uses of Substantives.(1) attributive use of the topic(2) attributive use of the associate2. .The Time System.(1) ku and past time(2) it and present time or time within(3) sa and future time3. Prepositional Elements.4. Statements of Comparison.5. Associatives Used as ,Quotatives.6. Parenthetical and Idiomatic Use of the 1167168

PAGEE. ADJECTIVES1691. THEORY.1. Natural Adjectives.2. Syntactic Definition.3. General Definition of Adjectives.2. STANDARD ADJECTIVE-MAKING DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES.Y. The Basic Adjective Root Class.(1) adjective bases(2) reduplicated words(3) adjectives with -in- infix(4) adjectives with -an or -on suffixes(5) adjectives with the .Iron and -anan suffixes2. The ma- Adjective Class.(4) adjectives with ma(2) adjectives 'with maka 2S prefix and -14v1- infix(3) adjectives with ma-, -in, -on(4) adjectives'vlit:gnia prof and ron-sigrix(5) adjectives with inakie prefix3. The pa- Adjective ClaS"s(1) adjectives.With paea- prefix(p adjectives with pina- prefix3. THE DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES.1. The Positive Degree.2. The Diminuative Degree.3. The Relative Degree. 4. The Intensive Degree.5. The Superlative Degree.6. An Adjective Comparison Chart of Degree of Intensity.4. QUALIFIERSI. Qualifiers that arc linked to the Adjective Form.2. Qualifiers that are not linked to the Adjective Form.5. STATEMENTS OF COMPARISON.5a. EXTERNAL COMPARISONS.1. Comparisons of Equality.2. Scaler Comparisons.3. Comparisons of Consequence.5b. INTERNAL COMPARLSONS.1. The Superlative Degree.6. 75176176176177179179179180F. ADVERBS AND ADVERBIA LS1811. THEORY.1. Notional Definition.2. A Formal Definition.(1) the it marker(2) word order3. A Syntactic Definition.1811811814. Summary.18218218318314

PAGE2. TIME AND MANNER WORDS.1. Words Illustrating Time.2. Words Illustrating Manner.- theVar prefix3. DEICTICS- -THE PLACE WORDS.1. A Postpositive Form.2. An ,Emphatic Form.3. The Orientation of the Deictics.4. Deictics Used as Other Parts of Speech.4. SUMMARi.UNIT SIX:FUNCTION WORDS184184184185185186186187187188A. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND188B.189BASIC FUNCTION MARKERS1. THE BASIC NOMINAL FUNCTION MARKERS.2. OTHER BASIC FUNCTION MARKERS USED WITH NOUNS.1. mga, the plural marker.2. Ica, the enumerative marker.3. LIGATURE OR LINKER, nga.4. THE LINKER it .C.INTERROGATIVE OR QUESTION PARTICLES1. NOMINAL INTERROGATORS.Personal Names.2. Common Nouns.2. VERBAL INTERROGATORS.3. ADVERBIAL INTERROGATORS.1. The Time Interrogators.2. The Place Interrogator.3. The Manner Interrogator.4. ADJECTIVAL 95NEGATIVE PARTICLES1951951961961. THE USES OF owa'.2. THE USES OF indi'.3. THE USES OF ayaw.4. THE USE OF bukon.E.189.190190190191TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS1. ha/1. Simple Transformation.2. Emphasis Derivation.2. may1. Existential Statements,2. Indefinite Statements.3. Statements of Possession.(1) Focus on the possess&(2), Focus on the relationship of possession15197-197197197198198198198198198

PAGE199F. DISCOURSE PARTICLES1. THE ENCLITIC OR POSTPOSITIVE DISCOURSE PARTICLES.1. The Question and Ahswer Particles.(1) Emphasis in questions (bacai,(2) Obligatory suffix after siin and ano [-23(3) The general answer particle [man)(4) The excuse particle [at](5) The apologetic particle [gang](6) Direct answer particle [ron]2. The Time Related Particles(1) Durative particle [con](2) Sustaining particle [pa](3) rayon(4) anal ("the patience particle")(5) eagi ("the impatience particle")3. The Quotative Particles.(1) kur.o(2) makon(3) maton(4) mana4. The Limiting 02202202202,202203203.203203(I) eang(') mismo20'203703203(3) hacos(4) hingan5: The Emphatic or Affirmative Particles.(1) gid204204204204(2) ki(3) gall'(4) ngani'6. Notes on the Position or Word Order of Enclitics.7. Comparison Chart Contrasting the Meaning of Several Enclitics. 2052062062062062062062062062072072072. VARIOUS PREPOSITIVE DISCOURSE PARTICLES.1. The Verbal Particles.(1) to -o(2) abisige(4) pwede, sarang, mahimo2. The Modal Particles.(1) basil(2) sign.: o and s igura do(3) kUnta'(1) giato'.(5) sabon3. The Qualifying Particles.(1) sycmprc(2) matsai1207207207207

PAGE208208208208(3) m a s kin(4) n (5) manga3. THE TAG PARTICLES.1. ano2. ha3. ho410e2 P2082082094.5. a.4. DISCOURSE PARTICLES IN PILIPINO, A COMPARISON.G.209210CONJUNCTIVES2102101. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.2. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.APPENDIX 1--A COMPLETE LIST OF ALL ABBREVIATIONS USEDIN THIS BOOK212BIBLIOGRAPHY--Linguistic and Dialect Study Books233xlv -17

UNIT ONE: PRELIMINARY REMARKS.ON-AKITANON.,1;-"ATION OF AKLttNON. Aklanon, which is spelled "Akeanon" by its writers,and pronounced JAkianon/ by its speakers, is spoken by some 360 thousand people inor bordering on the province of Aklan on the island of Panay in the Philippines. The dialect is somewhat understandable to the people of neighboring provinces and islands whospeak any one of six West Visayan dialects. These dialects are a family of dialectswhose ancestor might be called proto-West Visayan, which in turn was a member of theMalayo-Polynesian family of languages, to which such languages as Tagalog and Cebuanobelong.Before beginning2. CHART: THE MALAYO-POANNESIAN FAMILY OF LANGUAGES.any formal comparison of Aklanon o other dialects or languages, it would be best to setthe dialect in its proper perspective, namely in its placetoday after many centuries of development.,Granting that language change is a long, slow process and that it is actually difficultif not impossible to determine an actual "stage" of development, the following chart ismeant as an outline of a very difficult to define evolution of proto-languages into presept day Aklanon:1roto-Mala o-Pol nesiarr (c. 3500 B.C.)roto-Pol nesiantNorthern Philippineprofik.-Indonesian(c. 1300 B.C.)roto-Philippine(c. 200 B.C.)Southern Philippineproto-Mala(c. 200 A.D.), .I.IlocanoHawaiian.Central VisayanICebuanoWest VisayanTagalic(c. alayJavanese(current)It is our present purpose to show Aklanon's relationship to the other descendants of WestVisayan. This exammaticn will be cursory and no attempt will be made to go deeply into theproblems of how or why the languages have changed since our purpose is merely to illustrategeneral similarities among these various sister dialects.See Unit Two for an explanation of our phonological transcription.2These dialects are found variously throughout the six provinces of the Western VisayaAklan (Aklanon), Antique (Kinaray-a and Hinaray-a), Capiz (Capisnon, a Hiligaynon-variant),lloilO (llongo, another Hiligaynon-vartant), Romblon (Romblomanon on Romblon island andSp Agustin, Tablas; Odionganon in Odiongan, Tablas; and Loocnon-Alcantaranon in Looc andAlcantara, T. bias respectively), and Negros Occidental (Hiligaynon). Despite the differentnames relating to the province in which the dialect is spoken, there are six basic dialects. Allothers are admixtures of two or more of the basic six dialects. --1-

3. REFLEX SOUNDS IN-CURRENT WEST-VISAYAN DIALECTS. Otto Dempwolff, alinguist who researched what he called "Austronesian"; the proto-tongue of such languagesas Tagalog, Malay, Javanese, Hawaii, and so on, established in his book3 several wordlists conjecturing what the shape of many current words in the daughter languages used tolook like. A brief list of them looks like n this list we find in medial position: two fricative /i/ sounds (the one in *daga, the other inhiga*), one 1nsta ce Of the /d/ sound (in *iudan), and two /I/ sounds (in *balay and *bulan).ln current West V sayan dialects we find that Aklanon uses a fricative /i/ sound in every wordmentioned above lit the medial position, the words now being:"it KLANON" (1968A.D ;)/dagaga//pugah/ittrian/.,MEANING 4*("maiden")./bagy/("red")("rain"),("house)/ bulan/("moon, month")Hence, Aklanon maintains a fricative /i/ in the same position as in the first two wordgiven but the remaining three words evidence a fricative /i/ also. In the Odiongan dialect'of Ta'blas, Romblon we find the word radan/ used today. In current Hiligaynon- related dialect:, (Ilongo and'Capisnon) we find the words /balgy/. and /bulan/ in use. Searching furtherwe find that these same Hiligaynon-related.dialects use /1/ in-the same position where Aklanon.uses the /i/:.ntil LIGAYNON" (1968A .D.)MEANING/dalaga/,/pulah/("maiden")("red ")/'ulan/("rain")/balSy//bulan/("house")("moon, month")Apparently the many sounds po '&ited by Dempwolff /i, d, I/ and others not discussed here,had fallen together, at least in part in proto-West Visayan, and since then that particularsound has redivided itselcinto the current variety of sounds it represents. Its current reflexes are: generally /1/ in Hiligaynon-related dialects, /i/ in Aklanon, Jr/ in Kinaray-a(spoken in Antique province) and Hinaray-a (the dialect spoken by the mountain people of, Panay),/y/ in Romblomanon, and /d/, /r/, or /y/ in Odionganon. Very often, the words of each respect dialect differ by just this one sound mentioned (the reflex) from words of the samernd meaning in the other dialects.3 btu liempwolff, VERGLEICHENDE LAUTLEHR DES AUSTRONESISCHEN WORTSCHATZES(1934-38).4The asterisk (s) symbolizes a reconstructed forshape and cannot be pronounced,-2-19.As such it represents a postulated

AY4. CHART: COMPARATIVE WORD LIST OF CURRENT WEST VISAYAN DIALECT'S.The following comparisons should illustrate the individual reflexes of each dialect. Note insome cases how borrowing from Hiligaynon, the "lingua-franca" of the West Visayas,occurs:ENGLISHlil y""ugly""evil"KINA RAY -AROMBLON ODIONGAN/dalaga//daraga// dayaga//hula,t//hulog// lat//lapft//lantfg//baldy//salt/.?/ t//rapft//ramfg//barty/*/'slam / sugat/ n/iugan//daid/rucidn/daPft// tamt//yam!' a'in/? - form is not known to authiirS:-.(** - form is possibly borrowed from Hiligaynon.* - form comes from Hinalay-a, the dialect of the mountain people of Panay.5. OTHER SIMILARITIES OF AKLANON TO THE OTHER WEST VISAYAN D

with a reference grammar; and.(3) provide linguists -with a. of an unresearched dialect. The grammar is divided into the . Examples of the Stative Qualifier's Usage. 0. 128 8. STATIVE ROOTS AS OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH. 129. 1. Stative Nouns. \ i. 129. 2. . sound. Words inthe proto-language (see Unit One, Section 3 andAppendix 2) which .