Transcription

How We GottheBIBLE

OVERVIEWWhy Is The Bible SpecialHow We Got The Old TestamentHow We Got The New TestamentIs The Old Testament Still RelevantWhere Did The English Bible Come From

Why Is The Bible Special

GENERAL INTRODUCTIONπᾶσα γραφὴ θεόπνευστος καὶ ὠφέλιμοςπρὸς διδασκαλίαν πρὸς ἔλεγχον, πρὸςἐπανόρθωσιν πρὸς παιδείαν τὴν ἐνδικαιοσύνῃἵνα ἄρτιος ᾖ ὁ τοῦ θεοῦἄνθρωπος πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸνἐξηρτισμένος

Why Is The Bible SpecialAll Scripture is God-breathed and is useful forteaching, rebuking, correcting, and training inrighteousness, so that the servant of God may bethoroughly equipped for every good work.

BIBLIOLOGY DEFINEDIn general, bibliology is the history and science ofbooks as physical objects; but specifically, for ourpurposes, bibliology is the study of the theologicalDoctrine of the Bible.

BIBLIOLOGY DEFINEDκύριον δὲ τὸν Θεὸν ἁγιάσατε ἐν ταῖςκαρδίαις ὑμῶν ἕτοιμοι δὲ ἀεὶ πρὸςἀπολογίαν παντὶ τῷ αἰτοῦντι ὑμᾶςλόγον περὶ τῆς ἐν ὑμῖν ἐλπίδος μετάπραΰτητος καί φόβου

1 Peter 3:15But sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, alwaysbeing ready to make a defense to everyone who asksyou to give an account for the hope that is in you,yet with gentleness and reverence.

BIBLIOLOGY DEFINEDThe term Bibliology (from Greek biblos meaningbook) refers to the study of the nature of the Bibleas revelation. It often includes such topics asrevelation, inspiration, inerrancy, canonicity,illumination and interpretation.

The Uniqueness of the BibleSo, then, what makes the Bible so different thanthe plethora of other ordinary history books? Whyare we told to trust the Bible, but question thevalidity of other books?

The Uniqueness of the BibleThe Bible is a collection of 66 documents inspiredby God. These documents are gathered into twotestaments, the Old (39) and the New (27). Prophets,priests, kings, and leaders from the nation of Israelwrote the O.T. books in Hebrew (with 2 passages inAramaic).

The Uniqueness of the BibleThe apostles and their associates wrote the NT booksin Greek. The OT record starts with the creation ofthe universe and closes about 400 years before thefirst advent (physical arrival) of Jesus Christ.

The Uniqueness of the BibleThe Flow of OT HistoryCreation of UniverseConquest of Canaan 7 yrsFall of ManEra of JudgesJudgment flood over the earthUnited Kingdom, Saul, David, SolomonAbraham, Isaac, JacobDivided Kingdom, Judah/IsraelThe history of IsraelExile in Babylon 70Exile in Egypt-430 yrsReturn and Rebuild land 140Exodus, Wilderness Wanderings

The Uniqueness of the BibleOT CategoriesThe Law -5 (Genesis-Deuteronomy)History - 12 (Joshua - Esther)Wisdom -5 - (Job - Song of Solomon)Major Prophets -5- (Isaiah - Daniel)Minor Prophets - 12 (Hosea - Malachi)

The Uniqueness of the BibleMajor prophetical books are called “major” because their books arelonger and the content is broad, even global implications.Minor prophetical books are called “minor” because the books areshorter and the content is more narrowly focused.

The Uniqueness of the BibleWhile the 39 OT books major on the history of Israeland the promise of the coming Savior, the 27 NTbooks major on the person of Christ and theestablishment of the church. The Four Gospels givethe record of His birth, life, death, resurrection, andascension.

The Uniqueness of the BibleEach of the four gospel writers views the greatest and mostimportant event of history, the coming of theGod-Man, Jesus Christ, from a different perspective.Matthew looks at Him through the perspective of HisKingdom; Mark through the perspective of Hisservanthood; Luke through the perspective of Hishumanness; and John through the perspective of His deity.

The Uniqueness of the BibleThe Book of Acts records the establishment of thechurch in Judea, Samaria, and into the RomanEmpire.The 21 epistles were written to churches and individuals toexplain the significance of the person and work of Jesus Christ,with its implications for life and witness until He returns.

The Uniqueness of the BibleThe NT closes with Revelation, which starts by picturingthe current church age, and culminates with Christ’s returnto establish His earthly kingdom, bringing judgment onthe ungodly and glory and blessings for believers.

The Uniqueness of the BibleFollowing the millennial reign of the Lord andSavior Jesus Christ will be the last judgment, leadingto the eternal state. All believers of all history enterthe ultimate eternal glory prepared for them, andall the ungodly are consigned to hell to bepunished forever.

God’s Publishing PreservationTransmission

REVELATIONRevelation: an act of revealing or communicatingdivine truth; something that is revealed by God tohumans. Revelation is divided into two broadcategories: General Revelation and SpecialRevelation. Moreover, general revelation has twosub-categories: mediate and immediate.

GENERAL REVELATIONIn mediate general revelation, God reveals Himselfand His glory through the medium of creation;(Ps. 19:1). According to the Apostle Paul, God’sinvisible attributes, eternal power, and divine natureare clearly seen in what was made so that men arewithout excuse for not honoring God norgiving Him thanks. (Rom. 1:20-21)

GENERAL REVELATIONIn immediate general revelation God goes beyondrevealing Himself through the mediation ofcreation; instead, He implants an innate knowledgeof Himself inside human beings. The Apostle Paulmade this clear in Rom. 1:19.

SPECIAL REVELATIONSpecial revelation is God’s redemptive revelationconveyed by wondrous acts and words. In the O.T.it came to men in several different ways, the mostprominent being that of the spoken word. This fact isdemonstrated by the oft-used phrase, “Thus says theLord. God also communicated via dreams andtrances.

SPECIAL REVELATIONSpecial revelation in the N.T. is unique in that God’srevelation of Himself came through the incarnationof Jesus Christ, the Living Word as well as theinscripturation of His spoken word. The scriptures ofboth testaments were completed via the work of theHoly Spirit guiding human authorship2 Pet. 1:20-21).(2 Tim. 3:16;

SPECIAL REVELATIONThis process is called inspiration and is thereforeincapable of erring due to God, through the HolySpirit, conveying His divine will upon the authors.

SPECIAL REVELATIONSpecial revelation is God speaking directly to man,and that revelation is being written under theinspiration God, the Holy Spirit. Special revelationis God’s specific information and instruction to man.

ILLUMINATIONThis is the teaching work of the Holy Spirit, wherebyHe reveals the things of God, to believers, throughHis word. Now, because the Bible is a spiritual book,it can only be understood with the aid of the HolySpirit (1 Cor. 2:9-16). Illumination is more than mereintellectual assent .

ILLUMINATIONThe Spirit’s goal in illumination is to move believersto a greater level of trust in the Lord Jesus Christ andtrain a believer’s heart to obedience by overcomingthe carnal nature. It should be noted that illuminationis only available to those who have been regenerated.

INSPIRATIONBiblical Inspiration is the doctrine in Christian Theologythat states that the authors and editors ofthe Bible were led or influenced by God resulting intheir writings being designated as “the Word of God.”

INSPIRATIONNote also that God did not merely inspire the authorsof Scripture; God inspired the text itself. If Paul hadthought the authors were inspired but not the text,2 Tim.3:16 would have sounded like this: “everyonewho wrote the Scriptures is inspired by God.”

INSPIRATIONBut that’s not what he said or thought; Paul said“All Scripture” is inspired/God-breathed becausehe believed that the very words of Scriptureoriginated in God.

INSPIRATION

VERBAL-PLENARY INSPIRATIONVerbal Inspiration means God’s inspiration extendsto the very words of Scripture. Plenary Inspirationsays every part of the Bible is fully inspired, notmerely the parts that have to do with our salvation.

VERBAL-PLENARY INSPIRATIONVerbal-Plenary inspiration does not mean that God turnedwriters into robots The biblical authors usedtheir own free expressions and God providentiallyguided their lives so that thy would choose the wordsthat conveyed His truth.

CANONICITYThe word is derived from a Hebrew and Greek worddenoting a reed or a cane. Hence, it means somethingstraight or something to keep straight; and also a rule,or something ruled or measured.It came to beapplied to the Scriptures to denote that theycontained the authorized rule of faith and practicethe standard of doctrine and duty.

CANONICITYHow do we know what supposed sacred writings were to beincluded in the canon of Scripture? There are 3 widelyrecognized principles for validation: (1) the writing had tohave a recognized prophet or apostle as its author, or oneassociated with them; (2)the writing could not disagree norcontradict previous Scripture; (3) the writing had to have thegeneral consensus by the church as an inspired book.

PRESERVATIONOne of the devil’s prime concerns is to undermine theBible; have the Scriptures survived this destructiveonslaught?In the beginning, he denied God’s Word toEve; he later attempted to distort the Scripture in hiswilderness encounter with Jesus. Through KingJehoiakim, he even attempted to literally destroy theWord(Jer. 36:23). Yet the Scriptures have outlasted everyattempt.

TRANSMISSIONHow can we be sure that error has not crept in since there areso many translations? As Christianity spread, it is certainlytrue that people desired to have the Bible in their ownlanguage, whichrequired translations from the original Hebrew and Aramaiclanguages of the OT and the Greek of the NT. Not only didthe work of translators provide and opportunity for error, butpublication, which was done by hand copying until the arrivalof the printing press around 1450, also afforded possibilitiesfor error.

TRANSMISSIONThrough the centuries, the practitioners of textual criticism,a precise science, have discovered, preserved, catalogued,evaluated, and published an amazing array of biblicalmanuscripts from the OT and NT. Although existing copiesof the main, ancient Hebrew text (Masoretic) date backonly to the 10th century A.D., 2 other important lines oftextual evidence bolster the confidence of textual criticsthat they have reclaimed the originals.

TRANSMISSIONFirst, the 10th century A.D. Hebrew OT can be compared tothe Greek translation called the Septuagint or LXX(written around 200-150 B.C.; the oldest existingmanuscripts dates to around A.D. 325). There is an amazingconsistency between the two, which speaks of the accuracyin copying the Hebrew text for centuries.

TRANSMISSIONSecond, the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947-1956(manuscripts that are dated around 200-100 B.C.) provedto be monumentally important. After comparing the earlierHebrew texts with the later ones, only a few slight variantswere discovered, none of which changed the meaning of anypassage.

Infallibility and InerrancyThrough history, faithful Christians have agreed that, if Godcan’t lie, His written revelation can’t lie either. Our trust inthe truthfulness of Scripture is rooted in our belief in thetrustworthy character of God. A broad range of words andphrases have been used in different eras to describethe truthfulness of Scripture.

Infallibility and InerrancyThe word “infallibility” comes from a Latin word that meant“unable to deceive” or “not liable to err.” When we say thatthe Bible is infallible, what we mean is that Scripture tellsthe truth and never deceives us.Another, more recent term to describe the truthfulness ofScripture is “inerrant,” a word that simply means “not inerror.”

How We GottheOld Testament

How Did The OT Get From God To You OverviewHow did the Old Testament BeginHow was the Old Testament writtenHow was the Old Testament preservedHow were the books in the Old Testament chosen

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?Hebrews 1:1-2: Long ago, at many times and in many ways,God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, but in thesedays He has spoken to us by His Son, whom He appointedthe Heir of all things, through whom also He created theworld.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?Testament: (also, covenant); a lasting agreement that definesa relationship between two or more parties and requires atleast one of them to fulfill specified obligations. The ApostlePaul was the first who referred to these texts as the “OldCovenant” or Old Testament” (2 Cor. 3:14). These writings lookedforward to the New Covenant/Testament that wouldbe fulfilled in Jesus Christ (Jer. 31:31-32; Lk. 22:20;1 Cor. 11:25; 2 Cor. 3:6; Heb. 8:1-13; 9:15; 12:24)

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganThe first writer of Scripture may well have been GodHimself. One of the earliest mentions of written revelationin Scripture was when “the finger of God” etched the TenCommandments on tablets of stone (Ex. 31:18; 32:15-16).

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganEx. 31:18: When He had finished speaking with him uponMount Sinai, He gave Moses the two tablets of the testimony,tablets of stone, written by the finger of God.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganEx. 32:15-16: Then Moses turned and went down from themountain with the two tablets which were written on bothsides; they were written on one side and the other. (16)The tablets were God’s work, and the writing was God’swriting engraved on the tablets.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganAnd so, God Himself seems to have been one of the firstauthors of Scripture. As far as can be determined, Moses wasthe first human author. It was Moses who kept records ofIsrael’s early wars, preserved the words of the Lord, and providedthe Israelites with a Book of the Covenant(Ex. 17:14; 24:4, 7). Over time, Moses molded the texts thatbecame the first five books of the Bible.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganMoses most likely drew from a broad range of earlier materialsto develop the Torah. Some of these originated with Mosesbut many materials were probably passed down as oral traditionsor fragments of text. Moses even cited one of his sources —the Book of the Wars of the Lord —by name(Numbers 21:14-15).

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?Who Wrote The Old Testament2 Peter 1:20-21: But know this first of all, that no prophecyof Scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, (21) forno prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but menmoved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?Who Wrote The Old TestamentIn the millennium that followed the life of Moses, otherprophets along with priests and kings continued to recordrevelation as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.Historical books drew from court records, military reports,personal recollections and oral traditions.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?Who Wrote The Old TestamentDavid wrote many of the Psalms, and the wisdom of his sonSolomon became the source for most of the Proverbs andfor Ecclesiastes and Song of Solomon as well. At some pointafter the Jews were exiled in Babylon, it seems likely thatan inspired scribal editor (perhaps Ezra) pulled together,edited them, and arranged them not a collection that wassubstantially the same as the Old Testament we have today.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganThe authors of certain Old Testament books are unknown tous, but this truth doesn't diminish the authority of thesetexts. The authority of the OT doesn't depend on whetherwe know details about every writer. The OT is the divinelyhistory of the people that God chose to prepare the wayfor Jesus the Messiah. The authority of the OT text isrooted in God’s covenant with Israel and in Jesus’ recognitionthat these writings were the inspired revelation of HisFather.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganNear the end of the 5th century AD, a group of Jewishscholars known as the Masoretes (or Massoretes)standardized and sharpened their copying skills. Some of thefinest surviving manuscripts of the OT come from the BenAsher family, a Masoretes clan from the region of Tiberias.The Masoretes added vowel markings, accents, and marginalnotes to preserve the traditional reading of every text.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganThe Masoretes scribes knew how many words and lettersbelonged in every book in their Bible. They even knew whichword and what letter should stand at the exact center ofevery book. As a result, the version of the OT preservedby the Masoretes, known as the Masoretic Text, representsa supremely reliable reproduction of the final form of theOT.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganThe Masoretic Text has always been reliable, but until 1947,know one knew for certain how closely the Masoretic Textfollowed more ancient texts. The oldest complete copy ofthe Masoretic Text came from the Middle Ages, more than1000 years after the original text were written; and, theoldest surviving fragment of any OT text was a piece ofpapyrus from the 2nd century BC.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?How the Bible BeganAs a result, many skeptics suspected that the OT hadchanged radically between the time the texts werefinalized and the rise of the Masoretes. Then, in 1947, ayoung shepherd named Muhammed edh-Dhib discovered theDead Sea Scrolls, and it became clear that the OT hadbeen preserved far more reliably than many skepticalscholars had supposed.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?The Dead Sea ScrollsIn the winter of 1947, Muhammed edh Dhib found the firstof the Dead Sea Scrolls. In the decade that followed the initialdiscovery of 7 scrolls, further searches revealed hundredsmore fragments and scrolls in 10 caves in theregion known today as the West Bank. Before it was all overmore than 900 ancient documents were discovered.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?The Dead Sea ScrollsMost scholars believe that the Dead Sea Scrolls were thelibrary of a Jewish sect known as the Essenes that hadwithdrawn to an isolated desert community known asQumran. This sect formed as a result of controversiesrelated to the Jewish temple in Jerusalem. These disputesprompted the founder of the Qumran sect, known in thescrolls as Teacher of Righteousness, to withdraw from theTemple establishment and to establish a community in thedesert.

How Did The Old Testament Get From God To You?The Dead Sea ScrollsMore than 200 of the Dead Sea Scrolls are copies of booksin the Hebrew and Aramaic OT. The remaining 700 or soscrolls provide commentaries on the OT as well as rules forliving in the Qumran community.

How Did We GetTheNew Testament

Can We TrustTheNew Testament

Can We Trust The New TestamentTelephone — this is the children’s game where one person ina circle whispers a sentence to someone else, and thatperson whispers what he or she heard to the next person,and so on, all the way around the circle. At the end, thefirst person and the last person reveal their sentences, andeveryone laughs at how much the sentence changedbetween the first and final communicators.

Can We Trust The New TestamentImagine playing telephone over the expanse of the RomanEmpire (2500 miles across) with thousands of participants,from different backgrounds, with different concerns, and indifferent contexts

Can We Trust The New TestamentIt’s true that several years stand between the life of Jesusand the first surviving texts written about Him. Paul’s letterto the Galatians and the Thessalonians are some of theearliest writings in the NT; and these letters were pennedaround AD 50. What that means is that two decades standbetween the time when Paul wrote his first letters and thedays when Jesus walked with and talked with His disciples.The NT Gospels were written even later than Paul’s letters,sometime between AD 60 and AD 100.

Can We Trust The New TestamentHow did the early Christians keep testimonies about Jesustrue to their sources? Suppose you need to remember a listof items today we have various methodologies associatedwith OUR CULTURE that we employ!!! In contemporaryWestern culture, if we need to remember something, weWRITE IT DOWN!!!

Can We Trust The New TestamentThroughout the past half-millennium, civilizations with theirroots in Europe have developed a deep reliance on readingand writing for the purpose of remembering. Today, thisreliance on writing has merged with new technologies sothat stories leap almost instantly from eyewitnesstestimonies to written words. Moments after an event occursfirst-hand reports and second-hand speculations are alreadytrending on social media.

Can We Trust The New TestamentIf you've spent your entire life in a culture like this, whereinformation races rapidly from personal experiences towritten reports, it’s easy to assume that stories can’tcirculate reliably for very long unless they’re written down.

Can We Trust The New TestamentThe problem with skeptics’ claims is that they’re trying toforce an ancient culture to fit the mold of modernexpectations. Unlike most of us, the early Christians didn'tlive in a culture of widespread writing and literacy.THEY LIVED IN AN ORAL CULTURE!

Can We Trust The New TestamentIn ancient oral cultures, experiences didn’t need to bewritten immediately in a literary form. People in thesecontexts were capable of sharing oral testimonies reliablyover the course of decades without ever writing themdown; hence, it is wrong for us to impose our culturalmethodologies on another culture as if their way is wrongbecause it doesn’t fit our standards.

Can We Trust The New TestamentWhat kept these oral testimonies from degenerating intoan empire-wide game of telephone?

Can We Trust The New Testament1. Accurately recalling and repeating oral histories2. Working together to keep oral histories true to sources3. Eyewitnesses kept testimonies connected to original events

Can We Trust the New Testament1 Cor. 15:3-8: For I delivered to you as of first importancewhat I also received, that Christ died for our sins accordingto the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and thatHe appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve, after that Heappeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time,most of whom remain until now, but some have fallen asleep;then He appeared to James, then to all the apostles; and lastof all, as to one untimely born, He appeared to me also.

Can We Trust the New TestamentSo when did Paul first learn this oral history? Most likely,from Simon Peter, soon after Paul trusted Jesus (Gal. 1:18).And when had Paul taught this testimony to the Corinthians?That happened four or five years before he recorded thesewords in his first letter to the Corinthian church. Paul’sproclamation of the gospel in Corinth happened in year 50,and he wrote 1 Corinthians from the city of Ephesus aroundAD 54 (Acts 18:1-19:22; 1 Cor. 16:8, 19)

WHERE DID THE ENGLISH BIBLE COME FROMThe Bible wasn’t written in English; in fact, when the Biblewas written, English didn't even exist! The Scriptures werecomposed in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. I will introduce toindividuals translated the Scriptures into English.

WHERE DID THE ENGLISH BIBLE COME FROMCaedmon: Nearly seven centuries after the Holy Spiritempowered the first disciples in Jerusalem, a cow-herdingmonk named Caedmon began singing the storyline ofScripture in English. None of his original songs havesurvived us today and they weren’t exactly translations ofthe Bible, but the songs he sang in the field marked thebeginning of a tradition of making Scripture accessiblein English.

WHERE DID THE ENGLISH BIBLE COME FROMThe Monk who died in the Middle of John’s Gospel: AfterCaedmon started singing the storyline of Scripture, anothermonk began translating Scripture into Old English; his namewas Bede. What bothered Bede was that many pastors didnot know enough Latin to understand the Bible or teach theBible to their people.

WHERE DID THE ENGLISH BIBLE COME FROMAt the very least, Bede wanted anyone whom the churchordained for ministry to know the Apostle’s Creed and theLord’s Prayer in English, but Bede didn’t stop with a merecreed and a prayer. He longed for pastors to be able tounderstand the Word of God for themselves; so, he begantranslating bits of the Latin Vulgate Bible into English. Evenon his deathbed, he kept dictating the Scriptures in English.His last words were a translation of John 6:9: “But what arethey among so many?”

WHERE DID THE ENGLISH BIBLE COME FROMGlossy Bibles and the End of Old English: Glosses wereword by word renderings of the Latin Vulgate, usually witheach English word written immediately above the Latin word.The result was awkward English, but it was enough to helpclergy understand the words they were reading in Latin.

WHERE DID THE ENGLISH BIBLE COME FROMAlfred-King of the West Saxons: In the late 9th century,Alfred had portions from the OT turned into Old Englishprose and he incorporated these translations into his code oflaw. Alfred, himself, translated the first fifty psalms fromLatin into Old English, and he faced a dilemma thattranslators still face today: how tightly should a translationbe tied to the original language? Should transition be wordfor word or idea for idea? Alfred said, “sometimes I translateword for word and sometimes sense for sense.”

WHERE DID THE ENGLISH BIBLE COME FROMA century after Alfred translated his psalms, a scholarnamed Aelfric continued this tradition and helped toturn the first seven books of the OT intoOld English.Aelfric placed a highvalue not only on translating the Scriptures but also onproclaiming the Scriptures in sermons.

WHERE DID THE ENGLISH BIBLE COME FROMIt was in one of his sermons that Aelfric declared, “Happyis he who reads the Scriptures if he convert the wordsinto actions.” And yet, when he spoke these words, the vastmajority of English-speaking people couldn’t convert thewords of Scripture into action because they never heardthe Scriptures in a language they could understand. Theyheard the Bible only in Latin, and no one seems to haveconsidered the possibility of providing ordinary peoplewith the Scriptures.

WHERE DID CHAPTERS AND VERSES COME FROMGod didn't inspire the verse or chapter numbers in the Bible.In the early 1200s, Archbishop of Canterbury StephenLangton added the same chapter numbers to the LatinVulgate that we still used today.

WHERE DID CHAPTERS AND VERSES COME FROMWhile on a trip from Paris to Lyon and back in 1551,Robertus Stephanus divided the chapters into verses in hisGreek New Testament. The first English translation to includechapters and verses was the Geneva Bible, published in1560.

ENGLISH BIBLESJohn WycliffeWilliam Tyndale

TYNDALE’S BIBLESCoverdale Bible (1535)Matthew’s Version (1537)Great Bible (1539)Geneva Bible (1560)

DIFFERENCES IN BIBLE VERSIONSFormal (Divine) Equivalent: A formal equivalent translation ofthe Bible tries to follow the original Hebrew, Aramaic, andGreek wording as closely as possible. Formal equivalencefocuses attention on the message itself, in both form andcontent. The weakness of the formal equivalent is the factthat they tend to be more difficult to read.

DIFFERENCES IN BIBLE VERSIONSFunctional (Dynamic) Equivalence: A functional equivalenttranslation translates the original languages phrase byphrase, following the flow of the biblical text withouttrying to translate every word. The weakness is that it’sdifficult to use these for any sort of detailed Bible studysince so many words and phrases are modified to makethe text flow smoothly in English.

DIFFERENCES IN BIBLE VERSIONSParaphrase: A paraphrase really isn’t a translation at all. Aparaphrase tries to restate the ideas in the biblical text inthe ways that we might say them if they were writtendown today. Paraphrases are easy to read but they aren’tmeant to follow the exact wording of the original text.

TRANSLATION EXAMPLESWycliffe (1380s): For God louede so the world, that he yafhis ‘oon bigetun sone, that each man that bileueth in himperische not, but haue euerlastynge lijf.

TRANSLATION EXAMPLESWycliffe (1380s)The Lord gouerneth me, and no thing schal faile to me; inthe place of pasture there He hath set me. He nurschideme on the watir of refreischyng.The Lord is my shepherd; I lack nothing. He makes me lie downin green pastures, He leads me beside quiet waters

TRANSLATION EXAMPLESTyndale (1525): For God so liveth the worlde yt he hathgeven his only son thsat none that beleve him shuldperisshe: but shuld have everlastinge lyfe.NIV: For God so loved the world that He gave His one andonly Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish buthave eternal life.

The Uniqueness of the Bible Each of the four gospel writers views the greatest and most important event of history, the coming of the God-Man, Jesus Christ, from a different perspective.